Last Modified: 05.04.05



MIRA Ltd           


The Motor Industry Research Association is an independent automotive engineering research and development centre. It has served the automotive industry as an association from its Nuneaton, UK headquarters for 50 years. Currently over 150 companies are members of MIRA’s association, helping to direct and assist its technological development. Approximately 500 staff are employed by MIRA having a wide range of scientific and engineering skills. MIRA operates a unique combination of facilities to assist manufacturers develop vehicle and component designs. Major areas of business and facilities include aerodynamics, components and materials, crash worthiness, electronics and electrical systems, engine and emissions laboratories, ride and handling, vehicle Acoustics and whole vehicle evaluation.


Each of these major facilities is backed by state-of-the-art capabilities in computer based modelling to support the practical testing.  These facilities and capabilities are constantly being updated by an active MIRA research programme.  This research activity is co-ordinated by the MIRA Research and Technology planning group who are also responsible for carrying out investigative work into new transport concepts and transport sector requirements.  The emergence of new vehicle electronics and telematics systems is also reflected in the MIRA research programme activities.  This involves activities with national and international organisations (governments and industry) and standards bodies.  The need to maintain a human-centred approach to the design of new transport technologies is regarded as a priority concern and relates to many aspects of MIRA research.


Mark Fowkes joined MIRA as a human factors engineer in the vehicle safety department at MIRA in 1977.  Initially responsible for vehicle homologation work he soon moved to undertaking Human Factors research activities on a wide range of topics.  These included driver anthropometrics surveys, bio-mechanics investigations, driver workplace analysis, visual display design, access and egress assessments and human modelling projects.  He eventually became manager of the MIRA Human Factors and Operations Research department in 1986 and had charge of a multi-disciplinary team engaged on consultancy and research topics.  This included involvement in a number of EEC related activities and programmes.  This initially concerned the bio-mechanics group of the European Experimental Vehicle Committee (EEVC) and then lead on to involvement with EEC Framework research in Telematics (DRACO, SAMOVAR, CODE, CONVERGE RESPONSE).


He has published widely in conference papers, technical journals and other publications and represents MIRA and UK Industry on national and international standards bodies.  In particular he has been the UK representative on International Standards Organisation committee ISO TC22 SC13 (Road Vehicle Ergonomics) for some 14 years.  He is an active contributor to the various working groups (WGs) of SC13 including WG8 responsible for new standards associated with Traffic Information and Control Systems (TICS) where he has been an ISO project leader developing a new standard related to terms and methods to assess driver visual demand. Currently, he is leading MIRA activities in a number of new technology and HMI projects related to Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA), Beacon based communication infrastructures, Speech Recognition Systems, Integrated Human Factors design tools, Vehicle Environmental Adaptation and Advanced Route Guidance System development.

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Swedish Road and Transport Institute (VTI)          


The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), is a national research institute under the Ministry for Industry, Employment and Communications. VTI conducts applied research, commissioned by the transport sector, in the fields of infrastructure, traffic and transport. The Institute employs 230 researchers and other experts, of whom 30 hold a doctor’s degree. Four senior researchers are associate professors at Swedish universities or institutes of technology. The skills of the researchers cover the areas of traffic engineering, transport economics, transport supply and demand, road safety, environmental aspects, road user behaviour, collision safety, human factors, vehicle engineering, railway engineering and the planning, design, construction, maintenance and operation of roads and railways. The range of skills indicates the inter-disciplinary composition of the research staff. Approximately 125 reports are issued annually in VTI series and reprints.

The VTI’s resources include well-equipped laboratories. There are two driving simulators - one passenger car simulator and one truck simulator, both with a full motion system and wide-angle visual system. There are also crash safety test tracks, tyre test facilities and laboratories for material testing as well as a heavy vehicle simulator for mobile testing of road pavements and other advanced measuring equipment for field tests. The activities also include development of various analytical and simulation models for estimating effects of changes of the transport system.

VTI has participated in a large number of Human Factors related Transport Telematics projects like PROMETHEUS (WG4/MMI, WG4/CED5 Task Force on AICC, PRO-GEN), DRIVE I and II (BERTIE, GIDS, EMMIS, TELAID, HOPES, ARIADNE, GEM), related Swedish programmes (Safe driving within PROMETHEUS S/IT4, DALTM within Swedish RTI ‘91-’94) and the 4th framework (ARROWS, SAVE, TELSCAN, SAFESTAR, AC-ASSIST, IN-ARTE, RESPONSE). VTI holds the Quality System Certificate ISO 9001.


Lena Nilsson Research leader, and head of the human factors group at VTI. Master of Science degree in Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering and a Ph.D. in Biomedical Engineering. Her major fields of research include driver performance, visual demand, cognitive load and acceptance in relation to driver support systems, design and evaluation of such systems in simulated and real environments, human factors aspects of the working environment of professional drivers and of the design of roadwork zones. She has participated in several European (Prometheus and EC) and national projects concerning human factors since 1987 and has published in numerous Conference Proceedings, Report Series and International Journals.


Håkan Jansson Senior engineer, responsible for the computer systems and applied programming in the VTI driving simulator. Examination from Technical and Navy Telecommunication Schools. His major fields of research include the programming of driving simulator applications in HMI and ITS experiments, scenario creation, and the analysis of experimental data from driving simulator experiments. He has participated in the development of some of the most advanced driving simulators in the world (both for passenger cars and heavy vehicle combinations), and in several vehicle dynamic studies in the VTI driving simulator initiated by automotive industries from USA, Japan and Europe.


Joakim Östlund Researcher. Master of Science degree in Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering in 1999. His major fields of research include physiological measuring, human factors and car adaptations for drivers with disabilities.


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TNO Research Institute           


TNO Research Institute is a research laboratory that belongs to one of the largest European research organisations, the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific research TNO. TNO employs 4,500 staff, working in 15 institutes in various places throughout The Netherlands. The expertise of the Institute covers the field of perception, physiology, human information processing and ergonomics. Projects are carried out for both military and civil contractors.

Traffic Behaviour is one of the research topics of the Institute. The Scientific staff dealing with this topic consists of both Human Factors engineers and experimental psychologists. The research area includes visual perception, cognitive functioning, vehicle control, decision-making strategies, attention, driver skills and traffic ergonomics.

The group publishes regularly in leading international journals and at relevant symposia. The group is experienced in conducting experiments in various settings (e.g., laboratory, simulator, and on-road). The group also provides various contractors with off-the-shelf advice and consultancy. The traffic group does contract work for the Dutch Ministry of Transport, the Traffic Departments at regional levels, consultancy companies, car companies, the Dutch railroad and national and regional bus companies. The group is active in various consortia working for European Union Research program Drive.

TNO-RI holds the Quality Certificate ISO 9001.

Wiel Janssen (Ph.D., 1976). Head of Traffic Behaviour Research Group. Experimental psychologist, with particular interest in human information processing and decision making under risk, with and without supports. He has carried out work in many EU-Projects including GIDS (DRIVE V 1041) and ARIADNE (V 2004).

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TRAIL Research School         


TRAIL is the Dutch academic research institution targeting world-wide developments in transport, infrastructure and logistics, and combining top-level education, research and knowledge transfer. A knowledge institute in which the Delft University of Technology (DUT), Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR) and the University of Groningen (RuG) actively participate. TRAIL is accredited by the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences and is a co-operative venture in which twelve faculties of the three universities participate and combine strengths to create unprecedented levels of knowledge synergy. The purpose: using experience and talents combined with those of clients to offer solutions to challenges in these fields across the world. TRAIL Research School is a breeding ground for innovative solutions. Ratified by the College Boards of both universities. TRAIL officially started on 1 January 1994 as the Netherlands Research School of TRAnsport, Infrastructure and Logistics (TRAIL) offering participation to all specialist faculties. There are currently 230 researchers active at TRAIL; of which 120 qualifying to PhD level.


Karel Brookhuis studied experimental psychology at the University of Groningen, receiving his degree (Dutch Drs.) in 1980. He was a junior research associate at the Institute for Experimental Psychology, until 1983, specializing in psychophysiology. In this period he set up the Institute's event-related potential (ERP) laboratory, together with his PhD-promotor Prof.Dr. G.Mulder. He completed a thesis on this subject “ERPs and information processing”. From 1983 he was a senior research associate at the Traffic Research Centre, University of Groningen, doing research on Drugs & Driving with Prof.Dr. J.F.O'Hanlon. In 1986 he succeeded O'Hanlon as head of the section "Biopsychological aspects of driving behaviour" at the Traffic Research Centre. From 1994 on he was also Research Manager of the Institute. Recently the Traffic Research Centre has changed affiliation and address, merging into the Centre for Environmental and Traffic Psychology.His current research interests are with human performance in working conditions, including human factors in traffic (specifically the influence of external factors on driving performance in the European Union research programs DRIVE, ATT and TAP).  He was Coordinator of one of the international research consortia in the ATT program (DETER project, V2009).  He was Technical Manager in the SAVE (TAP TR 1047) project. In the present DG VII Program he is involved in 3 projects, ADVISORS, TRAVEL-GUIDE and TRAINER.


Dick de Waard graduated in 1989 in experimental psychology at the University of Groningen, the Netherlands. From 1989 onwards he has worked at the Traffic Research Centre of the same university, which was recently expanded with a group of environmental psychologists into the Centre for Environmental and Traffic Psychology. One of his main research interests is the measurement of driver mental workload, on which subject he completed a PhD thesis in 1996. In relation to this, the measurement of drivers’ psychophysiology in a moving vehicle is also a subject that receives his interest. In the past ten years he has worked on effects of traffic environment (such as road delineation and layout) on driver behaviour, effects of police enforcement on speeding, effects and acceptance of new transport telematics, such as car phones, in-car tutoring and feedback systems (EU sponsored DETER project), on the detection of impaired driver behaviour (EU sponsored DREAM and SAVE projects). More recently he has completed work on driver behaviour in emergency situations in the Automated Highway System. In the present DG VII Program he is involved in 3 projects, ADVISORS, TRAVEL-GUIDE and TRAINER.


Vincent Marchau obtained his Master's degree in Applied Mathematics at the Delft University of Technology in 1992. In 1994 he started to work within the Delft University of Technology and the TRAIL Research School as a PhD researcher/assistant professor in Transport Policy and Logistical Organisation. His work focuses on research, lecturing and consulting activities in the field of Technology Assessment regarding electronic driver support systems.Currently, his main interest involves the further development and application of appropriate methodologies regarding the evaluation of ITS implementation within the context of public policy making. This should provide knowledge on the societal consequences of the implementation of ITS to the public authorities involved, in order to support the development of their policy strategy and to identify important issues for follow-up, in-depth research.

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Transport Canada           


Transport Canada is the federal department responsible for the transportation policies, programs and goals set by the government to make sure the national transportation system is safe, efficient and accessible to all its users. Moreover, the jurisdictional framework in Canada is such that all levels of government have some responsibility in the country’s transportation system. Transport Canada delivers its programs and services under numerous legislative and constitutional authorities.

The Ergonomics Division is part of the Motor Vehicle Standards and Research Branch which, in turn, is part of Transport Canada's Road Safety Directorate.  The mission of the Division to advance and apply knowledge about interactions between human users and other elements of the road transport system to support the development of motor vehicle safety standards and other collision countermeasures.

Division activities relate to the generation and application of knowledge relevant to driver-vehicle-road interactions and the conduct of ad-hoc studies, demonstrations and consultations to support the Directorate’s regulatory development and other program objectives as well as provide a leadership role both nationally and internationally.  The Division accomplishes its research objectives through a mix of in-house investigations, collaborative and contracted-out studies.


Ian Noy is Chief of the Ergonomics Division. He holds a doctorate degree in Industrial Engineering from the University of Toronto, specialising in human factors.  He is a Board certified professional ergonomist (CPE). Dr. Noy’s R&D experience covers a broad range of areas, including human-machine interface design and evaluation, human performance and training, and behavioural research.  He has published over ninety scientific and technical reports, conference and journal articles.  He has prepared and presented lectures in human factors on a variety of topics, including traffic safety, human operator capabilities and limitations, human information processing, design of controls and displays, and human factors in intelligent transport systems.  His applied research experience spans applications in the air, on the ground, and underwater, including military R&D.  He serves on the Editorial Board of Transportation Human Factors, and is Associate Editor of the International Encyclopedia of Ergonomics and Human Factors (in press).  In addition, he edited the book, The Ergonomics and Safety of Intelligent Driver Interfaces (Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates, 1997).

Dr. Noy currently holds the office of President of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA).  He is a Fellow of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES), a past president and Fellow of the Association of Canadian Ergonomists/Association canadienne d'ergonomie (ACE), and a member of the Association of Professional Engineers of the Province of Ontario (PEO).  He is also a member of the Transportation Research Board Committee on Simulation and the Measurement of Driving.  Dr. Noy was the chairman of the 12th Congress of the IEA held in Toronto in 1994.  In 1998, he was leader of the People to People Ambassador Programs’ Ergonomics Delegation to the People’s Republic of China.


Joanne Harbluk’s general area of interest is human cognition and performance, with a particular focus on human error and decision making, and the monitoring, inhibition, and control of behaviour.  Current research interests focus on Intelligent Transport Systems, and the safety of human interaction with them. Specific areas of interest include Situation Awareness, Workload assessment and Comparisons of interface formats for ITS systems. Prior to joining the Ergonomics Division at Transport Canada, Dr. Harbluk was a Fogarty International Research Fellow at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, MD. Her research in the Cognitive Neurosciences Section of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism investigated the cognitive correlates of alcohol abuse specifically examining the regulation of cognition and  behaviour. Dr. Harbluk received her doctoral and master’s degrees in Cognitive Psychology from the University of Western Ontario and her Bachelor of Science degree (Hons) from the University of Toronto.

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University of Leeds           


The Institute for Transport Studies (ITS) is the focus of transport research interests for all departments of the University of Leeds. The Institute's aim is to advance the understanding of transport systems throughout the world, by teaching and research activities which develop the necessary skills and best practice in the planning, design, operation, and use of transport systems.  ITS secured a 5* rating, the highest rank, in the most recent UK Research Assessment Exercise.


Research at the Institute is carried out in collaboration with industry and local authorities, as well as other departments in the University, including the Leeds University Business School, School of Civil Engineering, School of Computer Studies, School of Psychology, Department of Statistics, School of Geography and the Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering.  In addition to research, ITS offers a variety of postgraduate teaching programmes at Masters level and has an extensive doctoral research programme. Continuing professional education is provided through a wide range of short courses; advisory and consultancy commissions are undertaken for a variety of clients; and software (such as SATURN; for data-capture devices; and for training) is developed and marketed


External sponsorship accounts for over three-quarters of the Institute's income.  A significant component of this is research funded by the European Commission, both in Transport and in Telematics.  The Institute also supports two large research facilities, the Leeds Advanced Driving Simulator and the Instrumented City. 


Safety Critical Computing Group (SCCG) was formed in 1988 and has the following mission statement “To undertake research in the field of safety-critical computing, identify ‘best practice’ for industrial applications, and transfer this knowledge to industry; to contribute to the development, and the use, of standards and assessment criteria”.  The SCCG was a partner in the EU DRIVE I project DRIVE Safely (V1051, 1989-91) which formulated a proposal for a standard and for certification criteria for the development of safe Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS).  It was the Prime-Contractor of the EU DRIVE II project PASSPORT (V2057/8, 1992-95), which developed methodologies for safety assessment and evaluation, and a partner in the EU DRIVE II project EMCATT (V2064, 1994-95) which made proposals for the electromagnetic compatibility of ITS.  During 1993-94 the SCCG was a consultant on Safety Integrity, and the Verification and Validation of safety-critical software to the UK SafeIT project MISRA (a consortium of UK motor manufacturers and component suppliers).  The SCCG participated in the SATIN Task Force (1994) on the system architecture of ITS and was a member of the EU Transport Telematics projects on system architecture CONVERGE (TR1101, 1996-98), and system safety CODE (TR1103, 1996-97).  The SCCG is currently a member of the EU project KAREN (TR4108 1998-00) which is creating a framework architecture for ITS for Europe. 


Oliver Carsten (Coordinator): Director of Research, Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds. Dr Carsten has been project coordinator of four EC research projects, (VRU and VRU-TOO, HOPES and HINT. He has been chair of the DRIVE I safety and behavioural group, was a member of the DRIVE Safety Task Force, is chair of the Road User Behaviour Working Party of the Parliamentary Advisory Council for Transport Safety (PACTS), and is a member of the Road User Behaviour Working Party and of the Telematics Working Party of the European Transport Safety Council (ETSC). 


Samantha Jamson has a joint appointment at the Institute for Transport Studies (ITS) and the School of Psychology, University of Leeds and is a member of the British Psychological Society. She has worked on a variety of research projects using the driving simulator and instrumented cars as evaluation tools, in particular focusing on issues such as behavioural adaptation. Such projects include evaluations of Transport Telematics applications (Variable Message Signs, in-car feedback displays, automatic speed control) as well as more traditional implementations such as novel road markings and alignment. Other areas of interest include the training of complex skills in applied settings and mental workload measurement techniques.


Peter H. Jesty is a Senior Lecturer at the University of Leeds.  He has been researching in the area of the functional system safety of transport telematic systems since 1989, and through his participation in four EC projects in Frameworks II (DRIVE Safely), III (PASSPORT (Co-ordinator) and EMCATT) and IV (CODE), as well as in two national projects (MISRA and UTMC22), he has contributed to all the current major European Frameworks and Guidelines on this subject.  His contribution to the System Architecture activities of DRIVE II (SATIN) led to his participation in the two system architecture activities for Transport Telematics in Framework IV (CONVERGE (Technical Co-ordinator) and KAREN).  He is a member of the current UK national project on speed control (EVSC), and of the Steering Group of the UK Motor Industry Software Reliability Association (MISRA).

 Natasha Merat obtained her PhD from the School of Psychology, University of Leeds, in 1999.  Following appointments at Unilever Research and the University of Surrey, Natasha has recently joined the Institute for Transport Studies (ITS), as a Research Fellow. Her interests include many aspects of human performance and information processing, particularly memory and dual/multi-tasking.  Whilst at the University of Surrey, Natasha was involved in a pilot study sponsored by Railway Safety, assessing train drivers’ eye-movement.

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University of Minho         


The Universidade do Minho is a public Portuguese university, with administrative and financial autonomy, which has been created in 1973 and started its academic activity in the academic year of 1975/1976. The University central offices are located in Braga, at the Largo do Paço. Most teaching and research takes place at either Gualtar Campus, in Braga or Azurém Campus, in Guimarães. In the academic year of 1998/1999, there were over 15 300 students and 1103 academic staff, including 356 with a PhD. The number of employees is presently 574. The University is organized in 8 schools, the School of Sciences, the School of Economics and Management, the School of Engineering, the Institute of Social Sciences, the Institute of Education and Psychology, the Institute of Arts and Human Sciences, the Institute of Child Studies and the Autonomous Department of Law.

Within the field of the Research and Development, in 1998, the University has been able to assure the execution of 25 projects under the IV Framework Program of R&DT from the European Commission, namely under the TMR, Brite-Euram, Telematique, Biotechnology, Mast, TSER and INCO. The University is also involved in projects under the support from Interreg and Eureka Programs and several international cooperation agreements, representing a relevant contribution to the internationalization of the University activities.


Jorge Manuel Ferreira de Almeida Santos, Ph.D, is an Associate Professor at the Department of Psychology, I.E.P., University of Minho and Director of the Laboratory of Psychology at the University of Minho. He studied at the University of Coimbra and joined the University of Minho in 1990. He has been project coordinator of several projects on human perception and on road users perceptual skills, examining the impairment of driver performance and the safety impacts of the road environment. He is the author of numerous reports and articles on traffic research. Main areas of interest: cognitive psychology, motion perception, drivers performance and impairment, driving simulator interfaces, techniques of traffic conflicts.


Emanuel Pedro Viana Barbas de Albuquerque, Ph.D is an Auxiliary Professor at the Department of Psychology, I.E.P., University of Minho and Director of the Research Unit in Cognitive Sciences of the Laboratory of Psychology at the University of Minho. In the last years it has been accomplishing investigation in two major domains: information processing capacity; and traffic psychology. In the first domain of research the aim of the studies is the understanding of the processing limits and the interference between automatic and controlled tasks. In the second domain we intend to deepen the analysis of the perceptual factors and road environment cues associated with frontal collision of vehicles.

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Volvo Technology Corporation (VTEC)


Volvo Technology Corporation (VTEC) is a corporate, task driven, research and development unit operationally integrated in Volvo's different business areas. VTEC works in a number of strategic competence areas that are crucial to Volvo's core values and prioritised product characteristics (including safety, environment and quality, as well as good transport efficiency). By keeping this work together in a single unit with an extensive network, "critical mass" is reached and an internationally competitive resource is established. The number of employees at Volvo Technological Development Corporation amounts to approximately 400.  The Human Systems Integration Department in VTEC work to optimise the interaction between people and their vehicles. The principle goal is ensure a safe and efficient relationship between the user and the technical system. Our integrated, multidisciplinary group has members with competence in a number of disciplines including human factors, behavioural science, computer science and engineering. Our research facilities include a driving simulator, instrumented vehicle, remote eye tracker, bio-sensors and virtual reality systems.


Maria Tevell has a background in Ergonomics and Cognitive Science.  She has considerable experience on the development of information systems and in the evaluation of mental workload and forward collision warning systems.  She has worked in the INARTE project.


Emma Johansson has studied Cognitive Science at Linkoping University, Sweden. She now works with the Driver Awareness group at the department of Human System Integration. Projects include; evaluation of in-vehicle information and assistance functions, with respect to workload, visual demand, distraction and driving performance.

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Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT)         



VTT is an impartial R & D expert organisation with over 2800 employees. VTT develops technology and policy to improve both the competitiveness of industry and the basic infrastructure of the society.

The objective of VTT Communities and Infrastructure, one of the nine research institutes of VTT, is to provide information on communities and physical infrastructures for the needs of industry and commerce as well as public authorities. We have extensive experience and profound knowledge in the fields of transport telematics, traffic safety, driver behaviour, strategic development planning, system architecture and ITS assessment. Within the 4th Framework Programme VTT Communities and Infrastructure has taken part in the following related projects: FORCE, HINT, TROPIC, MAESTRO, MASTER, GADGET and ESCAPE.


Professor Risto Kulmala has a background of 23 years in transport research with expertise in road safety studies, simulation, modelling, traffic behaviour, policy and strategic research, telematics and rural ITS, with over 100 publications. He was a participant in the HOPES project and the Evaluation Task Force of the ATT Programme in 3FP, and involved in the CODE, FORCE, PROMISE and TROPIC projects in the 4th Framework Programme Programme. From 1996 to 1997 he was the manager of the Finnish National Road Administration's R&D programme on ITS. He is currently a project area leader in the DGVII's Euroregional VIKING project and the coordinator of the Finnish National R&D Programme on Transport Telematics Infrastructures.


Juha Luoma received his M.Sc. in Transportation Engineering from Helsinki University of Technology in 1980 and Ph.D. in industrial psychology from the same university in 1984.  Before joining VTT in 1995, he worked at the Helsinki University of Technology (Laboratory of Industrial Psychology, the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) and the University of Helsinki (Department of Psychology). Examples of his research topics include human factors aspects of applications in transport telematics, road signing, VMS, vehicle headlighting and signalling, rearview mirrors, pedestrian visibility, cross-cultural differences in driver behaviour and methodological issues of driver visual information acquisition.


Virpi Anttila (MSc) has a background of 5 years in transport research with expertise in experimental research of driver behaviour, road user surveys, development and assessment of traffic information services, with over 20 publications. She was involved in TROPIC, FORCE and SARTRE 2 projects in  the 4th Framework Programme and is currently involved in TRAVELGUIDE and ADVISORS in the 5th Framework Programme.