Policy Instruments

Road user charging
SummaryTaxonomy and descriptionFirst principles assesmentEvidence on performancePolicy contributionComplementary instrumentsReferences

Useful resources


Annex 1: List of Case Studies (from


Berg, J T, and Young, F B (1999) Value pricing helps reduce congestion, Public Roads, Vol 62 No 5, March-April 1999, Federal Highways Administration (FHWA), Washington.

CfIT’s world review of road pricing phase 1: lessons for the UK, June 2006

CURACAO (2009a) “Deliverable D2: State of the Art Review” Project: Coordination of Urban Road User Charging Organisational Issues Sponsored by European Commission under the FP6 Framework

CURACAO (2009b) “Deliverable D3: Case Study results”, Project: Coordination of Urban Road User Charging Organisational Issues Sponsored by European Commission under the FP6 Framework.

DeCorla-Souza, P (2001) Expanding the Market for Value Pricing, paper presented at the 9th World Conference on Transport Research, Seoul.

Daunfeldt S., Rudholm N., Rämme U., (2009) “Congestion charges and retail revenues: Results from the Stockholm road pricing trial”, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice  43(3),306-309

Eliasson J., Hulktrans L., Nerhagen L., Smidfeld-Rosqvist L., (2009) “The Stockholm congestion-charging trial 2006: Overview of effects” Transportation Research Part A 43(3) 240-250

Eliasson J., Brundell-Freij K.,(2007) “Stockholm Congestion Charges – Forecasts and Reality” Presentation at CURACAO Seminar, Stockholm, September 25.

Holland, E.P. and Watson, P.L. (1978) Traffic restraint in Singapore. 1. Measuring the effects of the Area Licence Scheme; and 2. Some design factors in traffic pricing schemes. TEC. January 1978.

*Johansson, B. and L- G Mattsson, (1995c), (eds.) Road Pricing: Theory, Empirical Assessment and Policy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, London.

Larsen, O.I. (1988) The toll ring in Bergen: the first year of operation. Traffic Engineering and Control 29(4).

Lee, D (2000) Demand elasticities for highway travel, HERS Technical Documents, FHWA, Washington DC (

Litman, Todd (January 2006) London Congestion Pricing, Implications for Other Cities, Victoria Transport Policy Institute

May A D, Roberts M and Mason P (1992). The development of transport strategies for Edinburgh. Proc. Institution of Civil Engineers. Transport 95(1).

May, AD, Coombe, D and Travers, T (1996) The London Congestion Charging research programme 5: Assessment of the impacts. Traffic Engineering and Control 37(6)

May A. D., Shepherd S. P., Emberger G., Ash A., Zhang X. and Paulley N., (2005), “Optimal Land Use Transport Strategies: Methodology and Application to European Cities”, Transportation Research Record 1924, 129-138.

Menon, A.P.G. (2000) ERP in Singapore: a perspective one year on TEC 41(2).

*Morrison, S. A., (1986), A Survey of Road Pricing, Transportation Research 20A: 87-98.

Oldridge, B (1990) Electronic road pricing: an answer to traffic congestion? Proc Information Technology and Traffic Management. NEDO London, HMSO

Richards, M.G. et al (1996) London congestion charging research programme. 6 : the findings. TEC 37 (7/8) [also papers 1,3,5 in the series]

Supernak, J, Golob, J, Golob, T F, Kaschade, C, Kazimi, C, Schreffler, E and Steffey, D (2001) I-15 congestion pricing project monitoring and evaluation services task 13: Phase II year three overall report, San Diego Association of Governments, San Diego. As at on 6 December 2001.

Stockholmsförsöket (2006a)  “Facts and Results from the Stockholm Trial: Final Report” December 2006, Available at accessed December 2008.

Stockholmsförsöket (2006b) “Evaluation of the Effects of the Stockholm Trial on Road Traffic” June 2006, Available at accessed December 2008.

Transek (2006) “Equity Effects of the Stockholm Trial” Available at: Effects of the Stockholm Trial.pdf

Transport for London (various years), Central London Congestion Charging Impacts Monitoring, Annual Report, see for details

*Walters, A. A., (1968), The Economics of Road User Charges, World Bank Occasional Paper No. 5, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.

Wilson, P.W. (1988) Welfare effects of congestion pricing in Singapore. Transportation 15(3).

Santos G., (2004) “Urban Road Pricing in the UK”, in Santos G (eds) Road Pricing: Theory and Evidence, Research in Transportation Economics 9 Amsterdam: Elsevier, 251-282.

Value pricing home page:

Wafer D., (2007) “Transport Innovation in a Historic City”, Presentation the Joint Independent Transport Commission/CURACAO Seminar, London, 22 March

* denotes items which are not referred to specifically but which might form useful additional source

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Text edited at the Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT