Accessibility - The accessibility of
an activity to an individual is the ease with which the individual can
get to the places where that activity can be performed.
Analytical - Rational, usually numerical, approach to understanding
Appraisal - A process of assessing the relative merits of strategies
before they are implemented.
Barrier - An obstacle which prevents a given
policy instrument being implemented, or limits its implementation in some
CBD - Central Business
CONCERT project -
Cooperation for Novel City Electronic Regulating Tools
Consensus - Broad agreement among stakeholders.
Constraint - A restriction on the feasibility of implementing a
Cost-benefit analysis - Appraisal of the economic efficiency of
a strategy, by weighing the costs of a strategy against the benefits it
might bring, over a number of years into the future.
DBOM - design build
operate and maintain
DETR - Department
for the Environment Transport and the Regions
Efficiency (or economic efficiency) -
Economic efficiency may have different meanings. In this case it means
maximising the benefits which users can gain from the transport system,
after taking account of the costs of provision and operation of the system.
ELGAR - Environment Led Guidance And Restraint
Environment - The environmental impacts of concern to transport
include noise, atmospheric pollution, vibration, visual intrusion, severance,
fear and intimidation, and the loss of flora and fauna, ancient monuments
and historic buildings through the consumption of land. The environmental
protection objective involves reducing the impact of transport facilities,
and their use, on the environment of both users and non-users.
Equity - Equality, especially between different groups in society,
in opportunities to travel, costs of travel and environmental and safety
impacts of travel. For Intergenerational equity, see sustainability.
ERP (Electronic Road
Pricing) - ERP is an electronic system that deducts appropriate
charges automatically from the vehicles entering the restricted zone.
This system consists of the communication device called In-Vehicle Unit,
the roadside antenna and the enforcement system.
2 - Road Pricing - Taxonomy and description - Technology
ERDF - European Regional
Evaluation - The process of finding out, after implementation,
what the real impacts of a strategy have been and how they compare to
what was expected beforehand.
FHWA - Federal Highway
- A measure of total disutility in monetary terms of a particular journey.
The generalised cost generally consists of the monetary cost of the journey
(e.g. petrol or fare) plus the monetary value of the individuals places
on the time spent travelling. Travel time is often weighted according
to the "pleasantness" of the means of travel. An example generalised cost
formula for a bus journey is given below.
Value of Time equals £0.11 per minute; and Walk and wait weighting equals
||Time spent (T)
||Time spent x Time weighting (W) x value of time £ (VoT)
||Monetary value £
|Walk access and egress
||10 x 1.6 x 11 = 176
||5 x 1.6 x 11 = 88
||15 x 1 x 11 = 165
|Total generalised cost £5.79
GLA - Greater London Authority
GMML - Greater Manchester
GMPTE - Greater Manchester
Passenger Transport Executive
GPS - Global Positioning
Horizon year - The future year to which
a planning activity is directed.
HERS - Highway Economic
HOT - High Occupancy
and Toll Lane
Indicator - Indicators are ways of quantifying objectives. For example,
accident numbers would measure the overall safety objective. This type of
indicator is often called an outcome indicator, in that it measures part
of the outcome of a strategy. It is also possible to define input indicators,
which measure what has been done (e.g. length of bus lanes implemented)
and process indicators, which describe how the transport system is responding
(e.g. number of bus users).
Infrastructure - Transport facilities requiring major capital expenditure
(e.g. railway projects, new roads)
Instrument (or policy instrument) - Also known as measures, policy
instruments are the specific means by which policies are implemented8 (e.g.
lower bus fares, road pricing)
Integration - Integration is combining policy instruments so that
they reinforce one another in meeting objectives. Hence also integrated
package and integrated strategy.
Land use - A term meaning the function
of a given area of land. Examples of types of land use include: residential,
industrial, commercial, agricultural and recreational.
LERTS - Leicester Environmental Road Tolling
Light rail - Rail system with a light volume traffic capacity compared
to ‘heavy’ or standard rail. Light rail may use shared or
exclusive rights-of-way. Also known as light rapid transit (LRT) or tram.
Liveable streets - Pleasant street and outdoor conditions in residential
areas. It includes the positive external effects on social, cultural and
recreational activity in neighbourhoods, freedom of movement on foot and
bicycle, and reduced sense of danger for these modes. It is linked to,
but separate from, the environmental and safety objectives.
LRTA - Light
Rail Transit Association
Management (or traffic management) -
How the transport system is managed and operated, usually to reduce congestion,
protect the environment, improve residential streets and reduce accidents.
Demand management encompasses measures to affect how people travel.
Mobility Pricing by Automatic Systems in Stuttgart
Mobility - Ease of moving about. Often specifically meaning access
to a private vehicle for travel. (NWM)
Model - A representation of the relationships which occur between
supply and demand within the land use / transport system. Usually expressed
in mathematical form, models are widely used to predict the outcomes of
Monitoring - A continuous or regular programme of measuring changes
and trends in the transport system. Monitoring conditions, using similar
indicators to those for objective analysis, is also a way of identifying
Multi-criteria appraisal - Appraisal against more then one criterion
Objective - Objectives are broad statements
of the improvements which a city is seeking in planning its land use and
transport system. Objectives specify the directions for improvement, but
not the means of achieving them.
Objective function - One or more objectives incorporated into a
mathematic expression, usually used in modelling as part of an optimisation
Optimal - An optimal strategy is one which achieves most against
Optimisation - A (mathematical) process to determine the optimal
transport strategy. Optimisation procedures can offer a rapid way of selecting
the best combination of policy instruments from a longer initial list.
Option - A choice. In transport, usually meaning one possible strategy
among several alternatives.
Park and ride - The provision of car parking facilities at public
transport terminals, to encourage car users to change mode to bus or rail,
particularly for journeys to urban centres. Parking is generally free or
significantly less expensive than in the urban centres.
Participation - The involvement of stakeholders in the process of
development of a transport strategy.
Performance - The degree to which an action is successful, or predicted
to be successful; usually judged against one or more objectives, indicators,
thresholds or targets.
Policy - A broad approach towards the achievement of one or more
objectives. A policy is put into practice through the implementation of
one or more policy instruments. For example, a policy might be to reduce
the use of private cars and promote public transport use: this policy might
be achieved through the instruments of road pricing and lower public transport
Pricing - The way in which transport users are charged for their
use of the transport system. This includes not only direct charges such
as fares and congestion charges, but also fiscal measures such as licence
fees and fuel taxes. Road pricing is a pricing system where motorists pay
directly for using a particular roadway or for driving in a particular area.
Private transport - (Travel by) vehicles which are privately owned
and for private use.
Problem - The real or perceived failure of current or predicted future
conditions to meet stated or implied objectives.
PTE - Passenger Transport
Public transport - Transport which is available for public use:
e.g. buses, railways, taxis.
Reliability - For the road system, reliability
means little daily variation in travel time. For the public transport
system, it means that vehicles depart on time and arrive at all stops
on schedule (punctuality).
Revenue - The amount by which income from transport pricing exceeds
Road pricing - The term road pricing is a rubric for a variety
of mechanisms that charge motorists by their consumption of road space,
clean air and other natural and community resources.
2 - Road pricing
Level 2 - Fares structures, such as flat fares, zonal fares
and monthly passes;
Robust - Likely to be successful in a
wide range of future scenarios.
Safety - Minimising the number of all
types of road traffic accidents. Usually expressed through total traffic
accident costs or by accident risk per vehicle kilometre.
Scenario - Possible future situation in terms of a range of factors
such as economic growth, changes in population and household size, income
and car ownership.
Sensitivity - The susceptibility to change of one thing in relation
to a change in another. Sensitivity analysis is a programme of tests of
a strategy to find out how its performance changes with changes in the
Stakeholder - All those people and organisations which have an
interest in the transport system, whether as users or non-users.
Strategy- A combination of policy instruments, as they are applied
Sustainable / sustainability- Meeting the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
(This particularly relates to global warming, consumption of land, and
depletion of non-renewable resources).
SYCC - (South Yorkshire County Council)
Synergy- A condition where the component instruments of a strategy
have a greater beneficial effect than the sum of their parts.
SYPTE - South Yorkshire Passenger Transport
Target - An aimed-for value of an indicator.
Threshold - The value of an indicator which should not be exceeded
TOD - Transit Orientated Developent
Traffic calming - Roadway design features that reduce vehicle traffic
speeds or flows or both.
TRANSPRICE - Trans
Modal Integrated Urban Transport Pricing for Optimum Modal Split
UK - United Kingdom
US - United States
UTOPIA - Urban Transport
Operations and Planning using Intelligent
Weight: Relative importance - usually
of one objective in relation to another.