Policy Instruments

High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes
SummaryFirst principles assesmentEvidence on performancePolicy contributionComplementary instrumentsReferences


Apogee, 1994, Costs and Cost Effectiveness of Transportation Control Measures; A Review and Analysis of the Literature, National Association of Regional Councils (

Cervero R., “Reviving HOV Lanes,” Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 53, No. 4, Fall 1999, pp.67-81.

Comsis Corporation, 1993, Implementing Effective Travel Demand Management Measures: Inventory of Measures and Synthesis of Experience, USDOT and Institute of Transportation Engineers (, available at

Dalhgren, 1994, An Analysis of the Effectiveness of High Occupancy Vehicle Lanes, Dissertation Series, Institute of Transportation Studies, Berkeley University, California

Dalhgren, 1998, High Occupancy Vehicle Lanes: not always more effective than mixed flow lanes, Transportation Research Part A, 32 (2), pp 99-114

Dalhgren, 2002, High Occupancy/Toll lanes:where should they be implemented, Transportation Research Part A, Vol. 36, pp 239-255
DfT, 2004, Bus Priority Initiative - Case study: High Occupancy Vehicle lanes: A647 Stanningley Road, Leeds, available at
ENTERPRISE, available at

Ewing R., “TDM, Growth Management, and the Other Four Out of Five Trips,” Transportation Quarterly, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 343-366.

Fuhs C. and Obenger J., 2002, HOV Facility Development: A Review of National Trends, Paper presented at TRB Annual Conference, Washington DC, available at

HOV World, website for the Transportation Research Board HOV committee, available at

ICARO, 1999, Increase Of CAR Occupancy through innovative measures and technical instruments, Final Report available at

Johnston R. And Ceerla R., 1996, The Effects Of New High-Occupancy Vehicle Lanes On Travel And Emissions, Transportation Research Part A, Vol. 30, No. I, pp. 35-50,

Leman, C., P. Schiller, and K. Pauly, 1994, “Rethinking High Occupancy Vehicle Facilities and the Public Interest.” Chesapeake Bay Foundation
Leeds City Council (LCC), 2002, HOV Lane Info Sheet, Issue 6 available at
McDonald N. and Noland R.B., 2000, Simulated Travel Impacts of HOV Lane Conversion Alternatives, Paper presented at TRB Annual Conference, Washington DC

Orski K., 2001 “Carpool Lanes - An Idea Whose Time Has Come and Gone,” TR News 214 (Special HOV Issue), Transportation Research Board (, pp. 24-26.

O'Sullivan, A., 1993. Urban economics, second ed., Irwin, Boston, MA
Parsons Brinckerhoff, A Guide for HOT Land Development, Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation, (, 2003.

Pardillo Mayora, J., Monzon, A., Bojorquez, R., 2004, Recent European Experience with HOV Facilities in Congested Metropolitan Arterials: Analysis of Operational Performance of N-VI Bus and HOV Lanes in Madrid, Spain, Proceedings of the Transportation Research Board Annual Meeting 2004.

Pratt R.H., 1999, “HOV Facilities,” Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes, Interim Handbook, available at

Pratt R.H., 2000, HOV Facilities, Traveler Response to Transportation System Changes, Interim Handbook, available at (

Stockton W.R, Daniels, G., Skowronek, D.A. and Fenno, D.W., 1999, ABC’s of HOV lanes, The Texas Experience, Research Project Title: An Evaluation of High-Occupancy Vehicle Projects in Texas, Sponsored by the Texas Department of Transportation In Cooperation with U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration

Turnbull, K., Stokes, R.W., Henk, R.H., 1991. Current practices in evaluating freeway HOV facilities. Transportation Research Record 1299, 63±73.

Turnbull K., 2001, Evolution of High-Occupancy Vehicle Facilities, TR News 214 (Special HOV Issue), Transportation Research Board (, pp. 6-11.

Turnbull K., 2003, Proceeding of 11th International High-Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Systems Conference, Washington on October 27-30, 2002. The Conference was sponsored by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) HOV Systems Committee.

Wellander C. and Leotta K., 2001, Gauging the Effectiveness of High-Occupancy Vehicle Lanes; Applying Three Criteria to Available Data Reveals Benefits, Viability, TR News 214 (Special HOV Issue), Transportation Research Board (, pp. 12-19.

Yang H. and Huang H., 1999, Carpooling and congestion pricing in a multilane highway with high-occupancy-vehicle lanes, Transportation Research Part A, 33, pp 139±155

VTPI, 2004, Victoria Transportation Policy Institute, Online TDM Encyclopedia, available at


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Text edited at the Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT