What is a strategy?
A land use and transport strategy consists of a combination
of instruments of the kinds outlined in Section
9. More importantly, it involves the selection of an integrated
package of instruments which reinforce one another in meeting
the objectives (Section 7)
and in overcoming barriers (Section
What do we mean by an integrated approach?
Many policy documents advocate an integrated approach, but
integration can be thought of at five different levels:
- Operational integration of different services, fares structures
and information, usually in public transport
- Strategic integration between instruments affecting different
modes and between those involving infrastructure, management,
information and pricing
- Policy integration between transport and land use
- Policy integration between transport and land use on the
one hand and other policy areas such as health, education
- Organisational integration of government bodies and agencies
with different responsibilities for transport.
Though, as PROPOLIS has demonstrated, all of these are important,
we are concerned in this guidebook largely with the second
and third of these levels. The fourth and fifth are mentioned
briefly in Sections 2 and
10, and relate to what DGEnv
refer to as horizontal, vertical and spatial integration.
How can integration achieve greater benefits?
As noted above, integration at the strategic level can potentially
achieve benefits both by using instruments (Section
9) which reinforce one another, and by overcoming the
barriers to implementation (Section
10). Among the barriers, it will be difficult, through
the instruments themselves, to overcome either legislative
and institutional or technical barriers. However, both financial
and political barriers can be reduced by careful choice of
combinations of instruments. All of the objectives can in
principle be achieved more effectively by using pairs of instruments
which intensify each other’s impacts on demand. One
difficulty, however, is that individual instruments can have
adverse impacts on certain groups of users. A careful choice
of other instruments can help compensate the losers.
For all of these reasons, a package of instruments is likely
to be more effective than selecting any one instrument on
its own. In these ways, synergy, or at least complementarity,
can be achieved between instruments; that is, the overall
benefits are greater than, or at least equal to, the sum of
the parts. The identification of instruments which might achieve
such synergy or complementarity is at the core of successful
The combination of light rail and road pricing illustrates
all of these; road pricing encourages greater use of light
rail and generates revenue to pay for the light rail infrastructure.
Conversely the use of revenue to invest in light rail makes
road pricing more acceptable and provides an alternative for
those no longer able to drive.
Instruments which reinforce the benefits of one another
to achieve synergy or complementarity
Obvious examples are the provision of park and ride to increase
rail or bus patronage; the use of traffic calming to reinforce
the benefits of building a bypass; the provision of public
transport, or a fares reduction, to intensify the impact of
traffic restraint; and the encouragement of new developments
in conjunction with rail investment.
Instruments which overcome financial barriers
Parking charges, a fares increase or road pricing revenue
may all be seen as ways of providing finance for new infrastructure.
Instruments which overcome political barriers
Enhanced service levels or provision of new facilities may
well help to make demand management more acceptable; so, in
a different way, can attitudinal measures.
Instruments which compensate losers
The selection of these depends on the side effects which
arise from other elements of the package. For example, road
pricing could lead to extra traffic outside the charged area,
which could be controlled by traffic management measures,
and could adversely affect poorer residents, who could be
assisted by concessionary fares.
The diagram shows, in matrix form, instruments which are
particularly likely to complement one another in one of these
ways. Those in the rows support those in the columns in the
ways shown. This table is intended to be used as a broad design