Policy results and recommendations

The results from the optimisation process are summarised in Table 2, which gives an overview of the relative benefit (over the nine case study cities) of each measure with respect to the two objective functions used.

Table 2: Summary of beneficial measures
Public transport infrastructure - **
Low cost road capacity improvements *** **
Increase in public transport frequency * **
Reduction in public transport fares ** ***
Road pricing and/or increased parking charges ** ***

* indicates there is (overall) a small benefit to using the measure
** indicates there is (overall) a medium benefit to using the measure
*** indicates there is (overall) a strong benefit to using the measure

From the results in Table 2 and from other aspects of the research, the following recommendations can be made for policy makers:

Methodological conclusions and recommendations

Collaboration sought for Exploitation (Academic exploitation)

A search will be made for suitable collaborators as follows:


Effort will be put into finding suitable partnerships with: