Policy Instruments

Encouraging public transport use through land use planning
SummaryFirst principles assesmentEvidence on performancePolicy contributionComplementary instrumentsReferences


  • Arrington, G. and R. Cervero. (2008) Effects of TOD on housing, parking and travel, Transit Cooperative Research Program, Report 128, Washington, DC. (
  • Banister, D. and S.Marshall. (2000) Encouraging transport alternatives: good practice in reducing travel. The Stationery Office. London.
  • Calthorpe, P. (1993) The New American Metropolis:Ecology, Community, and the American Dream. Princeton Architectural Press, New York.
  • Cervero, R. (1998) The Transit Metropolis: A Global Inquiry. Island Press, Washington, DC.
  • Cervero, R. (2007) Transit oriented development’s ridership bonus: A product of self selection and public policies. Environment and Planning A 39: 2068–2085.
  • Cervero, R. (2008) Transit-oriented development in America: Strategies, issues, policy directions. In T. Hass (ed) New Urbanism and Beyond: Designing Cities for the Future, Rizzoli, New York: 124–129.
  • Cervero, R., G. Arrington, J. Smith-Heimer and R. Dunphy. (2005) Transit Oriented Development in America: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects, Report 102, Transit Cooperative Research Program, Washington, DC.
  • Cervero, R. and J. Day (2008) Suburbanization and transit oriented development in China, Transport Policy 15: 315–323.
  • Chorus, P. (2009) Transit oriented development in Tokyo: The public sector shapes favourable conditions, the private sector makes it happen. In C. Curtis, J. Renne and L. Bertolini (eds). Transit Oriented Development: Making It Happen. Ashgate, Surrey, England: 225–238.
  • Coombe, D and Simmonds, D. (1997) Transport effects of land use change. Traffic Engineering and Control 38(12).
  • COST Transport (1998). Transport and Land-use Policies: Resistance and Hopes for Coordination (COST 332). Proceedings of the Launching Seminar of the Action COST 332, 24-25 October 1996. Barcelona, Spain. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.
  • CPRE (undated) Planning more to travel less. Council for the Preservation of Rural England. London.
  • DETR (2000) A good practice guide for the development of local transport plans. Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. London.
  • DETR (2001) Planning policy guidance note 13: transport. Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions. London.
  • DoE (undated) PPG 13: A guide to better practice: reducing the need to travel through land use and transport planning. Department of the Environment Department of Transport. HMSO, London.
  • Guerra, E., Cervero R. and Tischler D. (2012) The half-mile circle: Does it best represent transit station catchments?. University of California Transportation Center, UCTCFR-2011-09, Berkeley, California.,
  • IHT (1977) Transport in the urban environment. The Institution of Highways and Transportation. London.
  • Knight, RL and Trygg, L.L. (1977) Evidence of land use impacts of rapid transit. Transportation 6(3).
  • Kolko, J. (2011) Making the most of transit: Density, employment growth, and ridership around new stations. Public Policy Institute of California, San Francisco.
  • Lucas, K., C. Marsh and P. Jones. (2000) Implementing sustainable property development. University of Westminster. Landor. London.
  • Lund, H., R. Willson and R. Cervero (2006) A re-evaluation of travel behavior in California TODs. Journal of Architecture and Planning Research 23(3): 247–263.
  • May, AD, Matthews, B and Jarvi-Nykanen, T (2001) Decision making requirements for the formulation of sustainable urban land use-transport strategies. Paper presented at 9th World Conference on Transport Research, Seoul. Korea.
  • Renne, J. (2009) From Transit-Adjacent to Transit-Oriented Development. Local Environment, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 1-15.
  • Queensland Transport (undated) Shaping up: A guide to the better practice and integration of transport, land use and urban design techniques: Shaping urban communities to support public transport, cycling and walking in QueenslandQueensland Transport. Brisbane.
  • Still, BG (1996) The importance of transport impacts on land use in strategic planning. Traffic Engineering and Control 37(10)
  • TRB (2001) Making transit work. Transportation Research Board Special Report 257. Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C.
  • VTPI (2001) Online TDM Encyclopedia. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, B.C.
  • VTPI (2013) Transit Oriented Development: Using Public Transit to Create More Accessible and Livable Neighborhoods. Online TDM Encyclopedia. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, B.C.
  • Vuchic, V.R. (2007) Urban Transit Systems and Technology. John Wiley and Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
  • Wachs, M (1990) Regulating traffic by controlling land use. Transportation 16(3).
  • Walker, J. (2011) Human Transit: How Clearer Thinking about Public Transit Can Enrich Our Communities and Our Lives. Island Press, Washington, DC.
  • Westerman, Hans L. (1998) Cities for Tomorrow: Integrating Land Use, Transport and the Environment. AUSTROADS.
  • Yang, P.P. and S.H. Lew (2009) An Asian model of TOD: The planning integration in Singapore. In C. Curtis, J. Renne and L. Bertolini (eds) Transit Oriented Development: Making It Happen, Ashgate, Surrey, England: 91–106.


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Text edited at the Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT