Policy Instruments

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Full list of instruments

Land use measures

Development densities and mix
Encouraging public transport use through land use planning
Development pattern
Parking standards
Developer contributions to the financing of infrastructure
Value capture taxes

Attitudinal and behavioural measures

Personalised journey planning
Flexible working hours
Car clubs
Company travel plans
Ride sharing
Demand responsive transport

Infrastructure measure

New road construction
New off-street parking
New and upgraded rail lines
New stations
New rail services on existing lines
Light rail systems
Bus rapid transit
Park and ride
Terminals and interchanges.
Cycle routes
Pedestrian areas and routes
Lorry parks
Transhipment facilities

Management of the infrastructure

Road maintenance
Conventional traffic management
Urban traffic control systems
Intelligent transport systems
Accident remedial measures
Traffic calming measures
Physical restrictions
Regulatory restrictions
Parking controls
Public transport services
Bus priorities
Bus Fleet Management Systems
High occupancy vehicle lanes
Cycle lanes and priorities
Cycle parking provision
Pedestrian crossing facilities
Lorry routes and bans
Road freight fleet management systems

Information provision

Conventional direction signing
Variable message signs
Real-time driver information systems and route guidance
Parking guidance and information systems
Conventional timetable and other service information
Real time passenger information
Trip planning systems
Operation information systems
Static direction signs
Tactile footways


Private parking charges
Road user charging
Vehicle ownership taxes
Parking Charges
Fuel taxes
Fare levels
Fare structures
Concessionary fares

Text edited at the Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT