## Professor Dave Watling

### Centenary Professor of Transport Analysis

Phone: +44 (0)113 34 36612

Room: 2.02

Email: D.P.Watling@its.leeds.ac.uk_

Research Group: Spatial Modelling and Dynamics

**Key Research Interests**

- Mathematical modelling, simulation, statistical analysis, optimisation of transport systems.
- Specific interest in traffic network models, especially dynamic and stochastic issues.
- Network reliability modelling and assessment.
- Optimal network toll problems, bi-level and mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints.
- Statistical inference for network models.
- Visioning and alternative/qualitative paradigms for long-range transport planning.

**Employment**** History**

- Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds (1989-present)

**Education**

- BSc (Hons) Mathematics, Class 1, University of Leeds, 1986
- PhD Probability & Statistics, University of Sheffield, 1990

**Professional Engagements**

- Editorial Advisory Board, Transportation Research B: Methodological (1997-present)
- Associate Editor, Networks & Spatial Economics (since its instigation: 2002-present)
- Editorial Board, European Journal of Transportation & Logistics (since instigation 2012-present)
- Editor, Transportmetrica B: Transport Dynamics (since its instigation: 2012-present)
- Overseas Invited Member, International Association of Traffic & Safety Sciences (2009-2013)
- Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council Peer Review College (1996-2012)
- Instigator of symposium series, and chair of First International Symposium on Dynamic Traffic Assignment, Leeds 2006.
- International scientific/organising committee member of international symposia of INSTR (New Zealand, 2004; Delft, 2007; Minnesota, 2010; Hong Kong 2012), IMA (London, 2005), ISTTT (London, 2007), EURO Working Group (Bari, 2006), DTA (Leeds, 2006; Leuven, 2008; Takayama, Japan, 2010; Martha's Vineyard, US, 2010).

**Research Projects and Experience**

- STEP-CHANGE. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, Sustainable Urban Environment Programme. With P.Timms, M.Tight (Birmingham), N.Moore (Manchester), M.Savage (LSE).
- Visions of the role of walking and cycling in 2030. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. With M. Tight, R. Newton (Salford), D. Banister (Oxford), A. Day (UEA).
- Competitive Cities: The Network and Long term impacts of fiscal Management of Transport Demand. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. With S.Shepherd, G,Marsden.
- New tools for statistical inference for network-based transportation models. Marsden Grant, Royal Society of New Zealand. With M. Hazelton, Massey University, New Zealand.
- Platform Grant: Towards a Unified Theoretical Framework for Transport Network and Choice Modelling. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. With A.D. May, A. Daly.
- Impact of traffic growth on Public Service Agreement reliability targets [confidential report]. Highways Agency. With Risk Solutions.
- Review of Network Modelling Framework (UK National Rail model) [confidential report]. National Audit Office. With R.Batley et al, as described in Increasing rail passenger capacity DfT/ORR report.
- State-of-the-art in Dynamic Traffic Assignment: An International Symposium. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. With A. Sumalee, R. Connors, C. Balijepalli. Signified the founding of what is now the biennial DTA symposium series.
- Multimodal Travel Time Variability. Department for Transport. With R. Batley, S. Grant-Muller, J. Nellthorp, G. De Jong, J. Bates, S. Hess, J. Polak.
- A Theoretical Approach to Deriving Practical Road Pricing Cordons with Investment in Capacity. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. With A.D.May.
- Towards the Development of Efficient, Equitable and Acceptable Urban Transport Systems. Volvo Research Foundation, Future Urban Transport Programme. With A. Sumalee, M. Patriksson (Chalmers), C. Rydegren (Linköping).
- Advancing Methods for Evaluating Network Reliability. Department for Transport, New Horizons Programme. With A.Sumalee.
- Advancing Transport Network Design through Improved Behavioural Response. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.
- Experimental Investigation of the Dynamics of Driver Route Choice Behaviour. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. With T.Fowkes and M.J.Smith (York). One output was a set of freely available data sources on route choice.
- Improved Models of Driver Behaviour: The Application of Error Components Logit Models. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. With A.J. Daly.
- The Design of Optimal Road Pricing Cordons. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. With A.D. May.
- Aid in the development of travel behaviour models to assess strategies for information provision. Highways Agency. With P.Bonsall, R.Liu and Transport Research Laboratory.
- Seminar on Modelling traffic networks: current research and future directions. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.
- The development of techniques for the estimation of confidence intervals for traffic assignment models. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.
- Traffic management measures for guided bus schemes. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. With F.O.Montgomery. Included adaptations to the commercial software DRACULA.
- Fundamental properties of day-to-day models of road traffic networks. Advanced Fellowship, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.
- Extension of congested assignment models to handle demand responses. Atkins/Transport Research Laboratory. With D. Van Vliet, P.J. Mackie. Included adaptations to the commercial software SATURN.
- Fundamental requirements of full scale dynamic route guidance systems. Science and Engineering Research Council. Project member, led by A.D.May, P.Bonsall, D.Van Vliet.
- Integration of dynamic route guidance and traffic control systems. EU project CAR-GOES. Project member, led by A.D.May, P.Bonsall, D.Van Vliet,T.Van Vuren.
- A fully microscopic, dynamic framework for modelling traffic networks. Science and Engineering Research Council. With D. Van Vliet. The foundation for the commercial software DRACULA.
- Provided expert consultancy advice to DfT and the Highway Agency on issues ranging over inclusion of demand responses in network models, representation of uncertainty in appraisal, the modelling of travel time variability, multi-modal reliability, inter-urban travel time variation, evaluating network reliability under demand growth, driver information systems and OD matrix estimation.
- Joint proposer of original research council project to develop the micro-simulation traffic/route choice model DRACULA.
- Holder of visiting awards to provide training or carry out collaborative research, in Portugal, Spain, Dubai, India and Australia.

**Teaching**

- Masters-level modules: Principles of Transport Modelling (2007–present), Network Analysis Models (1997-present), Transport Data Collection and Analysis (1991–2004), Freight Transport Planning and Management (2000–2004), Traffic Network Modelling Practice (2001–2003).
- Undergraduate level modules: Travel Activity & Social Analysis (Year 3, 2001–present), Engineering Mathematics (Year 1, 1997–8), Mathematics and Statistics for Business & Economics (Year 1, 1999–2004), statistics tutor (1986–9, Sheffield).
- CPD short courses for transport professionals: Introduction to SATURN (Course director, 1991–2001), Elementary Statistics for Traffic and Transport, Analysis of Accident Data, Traffic Assignment Models: Recent Advances, Intermediate SATURN.
- External lectures on PTRC course 'Modelling the effects of area-wide traffic management'; number of in-house SATURN training courses to UK transport planning bodies, and to organisations in Dubai, India, Portugal and Spain.
- Supervisor of numerous Masters dissertations.
- Postgraduate Research Tutor, responsible for admissions, pastoral care, supervision arrangements, scholarship applications (2004–7).
- Supervisor of completed and on-going PhD students, covering a range of topics, including: modelling of traffic network dynamics; capacity-constrained public transport assignment; freight network tolling and road maintenance; joint route and departure time choice models; modelling network reliability; activity-based modelling of tours; and national models. With students from around the world bringing their own perspectives, a common theme has been the development of appropriate modelling tools given the circumstances, data and policy requirements of a country.

#### Papers

- Philips I;
**Watling D**; Timms P (In press) Estimating Individual Physical Capability (IPC) to make journeys by bicycle,*International Journal of Sustainable Transportation*, . doi: 10.1080/15568318.2017.1368748 - Milne DS;
**Watling DP**(In press) Big data and understanding change in the context of planning transport systems,*Journal of Transport Geography*, . - Philips I; Clarke G;
**Watling D**(2017) A fine grained hybrid spatial microsimulation technique for generating detailed synthetic individuals from multiple data sources: An application to walking and cycling,*International Journal of Microsimulation*,**10**, pp.167-200. - Rasmussen TK; Nielsen OA;
**Watling DP**; Prato CG (2017) The restricted stochastic user equilibrium with threshold model: Large-scale application and parameter testing,*European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research*,**17**, pp.1-24. - Crawford F;
**Watling DP**; Connors RD (2017) A statistical method for estimating predictable differences between daily traffic flow profiles,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**95**, pp.196-213. doi: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.11.004 - Lo HK;
**Watling DP**; Cantarella GE (2016) Editorial: Day-to-day dynamics in transportation networks,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**92**, pp.1-2. doi: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.07.001 - Cantarella GE;
**Watling DP**(2016) A general stochastic process for day-to-day dynamic traffic assignment: Formulation, asymptotic behaviour, and stability analysis,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**92**, pp.3-21. doi: 10.1016/j.trb.2016.05.005 - Ngoduy D; Hoang NH; Vu HL;
**Watling D**(2016) Optimal queue placement in dynamic system optimum solutions for single origin-destination traffic networks,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**92**, pp.148-169. doi: 10.1016/j.trb.2015.11.011 - Cantarella GE;
**Watling DP**(2016) Modelling road traffic assignment as a day-to-day dynamic, deterministic process: a unified approach to discrete- and continuous-time models.,*EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics*,**5**, pp.69-98. doi: 10.1007/s13676-014-0073-1 - Parry K;
**Watling DP**; Hazelton M (2016) A New Class of Doubly Stochastic Day-to-Day Dynamic Traffic Assignment Models,*EURO Journal of Transportation and Logistics*,**5**, pp.5-23. doi: 10.1007/s13676-013-0037-x - Hazelton M;
**Watling D**(2016) Editorial,*EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics*,**5**, pp.1-3. doi: 10.1007/s13676-016-0095-y - Smith MJ;
**Watling DP**(2016) A route-swapping dynamical system and Lyapunov function for stochastic user equilibrium,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**85**, pp.132-141. doi: 10.1016/j.trb.2015.12.015 - O'Hare SJ; Connors RD;
**Watling DP**(2016) Mechanisms that govern how the Price of Anarchy varies with travel demand,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**84**, pp.55-80. doi: 10.1016/j.trb.2015.12.005 - Ahmed A; Ngoduy D;
**Watling D**(2016) Prediction of traveller information and route choice based on real-time estimated traffic state,*Transportmetrica B*,**4**, pp.23-47. doi: 10.1080/21680566.2015.1052110 - Ehrgott M; Wang JYT;
**Watling DP**(2015) On multi-objective stochastic user equilibrium,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**81**, pp.704-717. doi: 10.1016/j.trb.2015.06.013 - Carey M; Balijepalli C;
**Watling D**(2015) Extending the Cell Transmission Model to Multiple Lanes and Lane-Changing,*Networks and Spatial Economics*,**15**, pp.507-535. doi: 10.1007/s11067-013-9193-7 **Watling DP**; Cantarella GE (2015) Model representation and decision-making in an ever-changing world: The role of stochastic process models of transportation systems.,*Networks and Spatial Economics*,**15**, pp.843-882. doi: 10.1007/s11067-013-9198-2- Cantarella GE; Velona P;
**Watling DP**(2015) Day-to-day dynamics and equilibrium stability in a two-mode transport system with responsive bus operator strategies,*Networks and Spatial Economics*,**15**, pp.485-506. doi: 10.1007/s11067-013-9188-4 **Watling DP**; Rasmussen TK; Prato CG; Nielsen OA (2015) Stochastic user equilibrium with equilibrated choice sets: Part I - Model formulations under alternative distributions and restrictions,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**77**, pp.166-181. doi: 10.1016/j.trb.2015.03.008- Rasmussen TK;
**Watling DP**; Prato CG; Nielsen OA (2015) Stochastic user equilibrium with equilibrated choice sets: Part II - Solving the restricted SUE for the logit family,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**77**, pp.146-165. doi: 10.1016/j.trb.2015.03.009 **Watling DP**; Shepherd SP; Koh A (2015) Cordon toll competition in a network of two cities: Formulation and sensitivity to traveller route and demand responses,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**76**, pp.93-116. doi: 10.1016/j.trb.2015.02.007- Connors RD;
**Watling DP**(2015) Assessing the demand vulnerability of equilibrium traffic networks via network aggregation,*Networks and Spatial Economics*,**15**, pp.367-395. doi: 10.1007/s11067-014-9251-9 - Nakayama S;
**Watling D**(2014) Consistent formulation of network equilibrium with stochastic flows.,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**66**, pp.50-69. doi: 10.1016/j.trb.2014.03.007 - Siripirote T; Sumalee A;
**Watling DP**; Shao H (2014) Updating of travel behavior parameters and estimation of vehicle trip-chain data based on plate scanning,*Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems: Technology, Planning, and Operations*,**18**, pp.393-409. doi: 10.1080/15472450.2013.806761 - Koster P; Verhoef ET; Shepherd S;
**Watling D**(2014) Probabilistic Choice and Congestion Pricing with Heterogeneous Travellers and Price-Sensitive Demand,*Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers*, . - Schmöcker J-D; Hatori T;
**Watling D**(2014) Dynamic process model of mass effects on travel demand,*Transportation*,**41**, pp.279-304. doi: 10.1007/s11116-013-9460-y - Timms P; Tight M;
**Watling D**(2014) Imagineering mobility: Constructing utopias for future urban transport,*Environment and Planning A*,**46**, pp.78-93. doi: 10.1068/a45669 - Balijepalli NC; Ngoduy D;
**Watling DP**(2014) The two-regime transmission model for network loading in dynamic traffic assignment problems,*Transportmetrica A: Transport Science*,**10**, pp.563-584. doi: 10.1080/18128602.2012.751680 - Smith M; Hazelton ML; Lo HK; Cantarella GE;
**Watling DP**(2014) The long term behaviour of day-to-day traffic assignment models,*Transportmetrica A: Transport Science*,**10**, pp.647-660. doi: 10.1080/18128602.2012.751683 - Carey M; Bar-Gera H;
**Watling D**; Balijepalli C (2014) Implementing first-in-first-out in the cell transmission model for networks,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**65**, pp.105-118. doi: 10.1016/j.trb.2014.04.001 - Koh A; Shepherd SP;
**Watling D**(2013) Competition between two cities using cordon tolls: An exploration of response surfaces and possibilities for collusion,*Transportmetrica A: Transport Science*,**9**, pp.896-924. doi: 10.1080/18128602.2012.673033 - De Maio ML; Vitetta A;
**Watling DP**(2013) Influence of Experience on Users’ Behaviour: A Day-to-Day Model for Route Choice Updating,*Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences*,**87**, pp.60-74. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.594 - Ngoduy D;
**Watling D**; Timms P; Tight M (2013) Dynamic Bayesian Belief Network to Model the Development of Walking and Cycling Schemes,*International Journal of Sustainable Transportation*,**7**, pp.366-388. doi: 10.1080/15568318.2012.674627 **Watling DP**; Cantarella GE (2013) Modelling sources of variation in transportation systems: Theoretical foundations of day-to-day dynamic models.,*Transportmetrica B*,**1**, pp.3-32. doi: 10.1080/21680566.2013.785372- Moreno-Quintero E; Fowkes T;
**Watling D**(2013) Modelling planner-carrier interactions in road freight transport: Optimisation of road maintenance costs via overloading control,*Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review*,**50**, pp.68-83. doi: 10.1016/j.tre.2012.11.001 **Watling D**; Balijepalli NC (2012) A method to assess demand growth vulnerability of travel times on road network links,*Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice*,**46**, pp.772-789. doi: 10.1016/j.tra.2012.02.009**Watling D**; Milne D; Clark S (2012) Network impacts of a road capacity reduction: Empirical analysis and model predictions,*Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice*,**46**, pp.167-189. doi: 10.1016/j.tra.2011.09.010- Carey M;
**Watling D**(2012) Dynamic traffic assignment approximating the kinematic wave model: System optimum, marginal costs, externalities and tolls,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**46**, pp.634-648. doi: 10.1016/j.trb.2012.01.008 - Tight M; Timms P; Banister D; Bowmaker J; Copas J; Day A; Drinkwater D; Givoni M; Gühnemann A; Lawler M; Macmillen J; Miles A; Moore N; Newton R; Ngoduy D; Ormerod M; O'Sullivan M;
**Watling D**(2011) Visions for a walking and cycling focussed urban transport system,*Journal of Transport Geography*,**19**, pp.1580-1589. doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2011.03.011 - Adnan M;
**Watling D**; Fowkes T (2009) Model for integrating home-work tour scheduling with time-varying network congestion and marginal utility profiles for home and work activities,*Transportation Research Record*, pp.21-30. doi: 10.3141/2134-03 - Sumalee A;
**Watling DP**(2008) Partition-based algorithm for estimating transportation network reliability with dependent link failures,*Journal of Advanced Transportation*,**42**, pp.213-238. doi: 10.1002/atr.5670420303 - Balijepalli NC;
**Watling DP**; Liu R (2007) Doubly dynamic traffic assignment: Simulation modeling framework and experimental results,*Transportation Research Record*, pp.39-48. doi: 10.3141/2029-05 - Uchida K; Sumalee A;
**Watling D**; Connors R (2007) A study on network design problems for multi-modal networks by probit-based stochastic user equilibrium,*Networks and Spatial Economics*,**7**, pp.213-240. doi: 10.1007/s11067-006-9010-7 - Connors RD; Sumalee A;
**Watling DP**(2007) Sensitivity analysis of the variable demand probit stochastic user equilibrium with multiple user-classes,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**41**, pp.593-615. doi: 10.1016/j.trb.2006.11.003 - Teklu F; Sumalee A;
**Watling D**(2007) A genetic algorithm approach for optimizing traffic control signals considering routing,*Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering*,**22**, pp.31-43. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8667.2006.00468.x **Watling D**(2006) User equilibrium traffic network assignment with stochastic travel times and late arrival penalty,*European Journal of Operational Research*,**175**, pp.1539-1556. doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2005.02.039- Clark SD;
**Watling DP**(2006) Applications of sensitivity analysis for probit stochastic network equilibrium,*European Journal of Operational Research*,**175**, pp.894-911. doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2005.06.012 - Liu R; Van Vliet D;
**Watling D**(2006) Microsimulation models incorporating both demand and supply dynamics,*Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice*,**40**, pp.125-150. doi: 10.1016/j.tra.2005.05.003 - Sumalee A;
**Watling DP**; Nakayama S (2006) Reliable Network Design Problem: case with uncertain demand and total travel time reliability,*Transportation Research Record*,**1964**, pp.81-90. doi: 10.3141/1964-10 - Clark S;
**Watling D**(2005) Modelling network travel time reliability under stochastic demand,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**39**, pp.119-140. doi: 10.1016/j.trb.2003.10.006 - Connors RD; Sumalee A;
**Watling DP**(2005) Equitable Network Design,*Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies*,**6**, pp.1382-1397. - Uchida K; Sumalee A;
**Watling D**; Connors R (2005) Study on Optimal Frequency Design Problem for Multimodal Network Using Probit-Based User Equilibrium Assignment,*Transportation Research Record*,**1923**, pp.236-245. doi: 10.3141/1923-25 - Uchida K; Sumalee A;
**Watling DP**; Kagaya S (2005) A study on the stability of the probit-based multi-modal transport assignment model,*Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies*,**6**, pp.107-118. doi: 10.11175/easts.6.107 - Hazelton ML;
**Watling DP**(2004) Computation of equilibrium distributions of Markov traffic-assignment models,*Transportation Science*,**38**, pp.331-342. doi: 10.1287/trsc.1030.0052 **Watling D**; Hazelton ML (2003) The Dynamics and equilibria of day-to-day traffic assignment models,*Networks and Spatial Economics*,**3**, pp.349-370. doi: 10.1023/A:1025398302560- Sumalee A;
**Watling DP**(2003) Travel Time Reliability in a Network with Dependent Link Modes and Partial Driver Response,*Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies*,**5**, pp.1687-1701. **Watling D**(2002) A second order stochastic network equilibrium model, I: Theoretical foundation,*Transportation Science*,**36**, pp.149-166. doi: 10.1287/trsc.36.2.149.560- Clark SD;
**Watling DP**(2002) Sensitivity analysis of the probit-based stochastic user equilibrium assignment model,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**36**, pp.617-635. doi: 10.1016/S0191-2615(01)00021-2 **Watling D**(2002) A second order stochastic network equilibrium model, II: Solution method and numerical experiments,*Transportation Science*,**36**, pp.167-183. doi: 10.1287/trsc.36.2.167.564- Clark SD;
**Watling DP**(2000) Probit-based sensitivity analysis for general traffic networks,*Transportation Research Record*, pp.88-95. **Watling D**(1999) Stability of the stochastic equilibrium assignment problem: A dynamical systems approach,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**33**, pp.281-312. doi: 10.1016/S0191-2615(98)00033-2**Watling D**(1998) Perturbation stability of the asymmetric stochastic equilibrium assignment model,*Transportation Research Part B: Methodological*,**32**, pp.155-171. doi: 10.1016/S0191-2615(97)00022-2**Watling D**(1996) Asymmetric problems and stochastic process models of traffic assignment,*TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH PART B-METHODOLOGICAL*,**30**, pp.339-357. doi: 10.1016/0191-2615(96)00006-9- WATLING D (1994) URBAN TRAFFIC NETWORK MODELS AND DYNAMIC DRIVER INFORMATION-SYSTEMS,
*TRANSPORT REVIEWS*,**14**, pp.219-246. doi: 10.1080/01441649408716881 **Watling DP**(1994) Maximum likelihood estimation of an origin-destination matrix from a partial registration plate survey,*Transportation Research Part B*,**28**, pp.289-314. doi: 10.1016/0191-2615(94)90003-5**Watling DP**; Van Vuren T (1993) The modelling of dynamic route guidance systems,*Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies*,**2**, pp.159-182. doi: 10.1016/0968-090X(93)90012-5- Maher MJ;
**Watling DP**(1992) A statistical procedure for estimating a mean origin - destination matrix from a partial registration plate survey,*Transportation Research. Part B: Methodological*,**26**, pp.171-193. doi: 10.1016/0191-2615(92)90023-P - Keen KG; Catling I; Rees NT;
**Watling DP**(1991) DRIVE and the EC’s Advanced Road Transport Telematics Programme : current activities and future prospects,*Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers (London)*,**90**, pp.953-957. doi: 10.1680/iicep.1991.15395 - Van Vuren T;
**Watling DP**(1991) Multiple user class assignment model for route guidance,*Transportation Research Record*,**1306**, pp.22-32. - Van Vuren T;
**Watling DP**(1991) What are the benefits of in-vehicle navigation systems? (in Dutch),*Verkeerskunde*,**42**, pp.28-31. - Maher MJ;
**Watling DP**(1988) A graphical procedure for analysing partial registration plate data,*Traffic Engineering & Control*,**29**, pp.515-519.

#### Book Chapters

- Connors RD; Patriksson M; Rydergren C; Sumalee A;
**Watling DP**(2015) Sensitivity Analysis of Welfare, Equity, and Acceptability Level of Transport Policies, In: Migdalas A; Karakitsiou A (Ed)*Optimization, Control, and Applications in the Information Age*, Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics,**130**, Springer International Publishing, pp.39-65. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-18567-5_3 - Koh ATM;
**Watling D**(2011) Wardrop Equilibrium, In: Button K (Ed)*Dictionary of Transport Analysis*, Edward Elgar Pub, pp.418-420. doi: 10.4337/9781849804714 - Nakayama S; Connors RD;
**Watling DP**(2009) Estimation of Parameters of Network Equilibrium Models: A Maximum Likelihood Method and Statistical Properties of Network Flow, In: Lam WHK; Wong SC; Lo HK (Ed)*Transportation & Traffic Theory 2009: Golden Jubilee*, Springer, pp.39-56. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-0820-9_3 - Connors RD; Smith MJ;
**Watling DP**(2007) Bilevel optimisation of prices in network equilibrium models., In: Heydecker B (Ed)*Mathematics in Transport*, Elsevier Science, pp.27-44. - Teklu F;
**Watling DP**; Connors RD (2007) A Markov Process Model for Capacity-constrained Transit Assignment, In: Heydecker G; Allsop RE (Ed)*Transportation and Traffic Theory 2007*, Elsevier Science, pp.483-505. - Connors RD;
**Watling DP**; Sumalee A (2007) Practical obstacles in the sensitivity analysis of traffic equilibria, In: Heydecker B (Ed)*Mathematics in Transport*, Elsevier Science, pp.397-411. - Sumalee A; Connors RD;
**Watling DP**(2006) Optimal toll design problem with improved behavioural equilibrium model: the case of the probit model, In: Lawphongpanich S; Hearn D; Smith M (Ed)*Mathematical and Computational Models for Congestion Charging*, Applied Optimisation,**101**, Springer, pp.219-240. - Balijepalli NC;
**Watling DP**(2005) Doubly Dynamic Equilibrium Distribution Approximation Model for Dynamic Traffic Assignment, In: Mahmassani HS (Ed)*Transportation and Traffic Theory: Flow, Dynamics and Human Interaction - Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Transportation and Traffic Theory*, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.741-760. **Watling D**(2002) Stochastic network equilibrium under stochastic demand, In: Patriksson M; Labbe M (Ed)*Transportation Planning: State of the Art*, Applied Optimization,**64**, Kluwer, pp.33-51. doi: 10.1007/0-306-48220-7_3**Watling D**(2000) Traffic assignment with stochastic flows and the estimation of travel time reliability, In: Bell MGH; Cassir C (Ed)*Reliability of transport networks*, Traffic Engineering Series,**3**, Research Studies Press Ltd, pp.31-42.**Watling DP**(1999) A stochastic process model of day-to-day traffic assignment and information, In: Emmerick R; Nijkampt P (Ed)*Behavioural and Network Impacts of Driver Information Systems*, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., pp.115-139.- Liu R; Van Vliet D;
**Watling DP**(1998) DRACULA - microscopic, day-to-day dynamic modelling of traffic assignment and simulation, In: Stephanedes YJ; Fillippi F (Ed)*Applications of Advanced Technologies in Transportation Engineering*, ASCE Press, New York, pp.444-448. - Liu R; Clark SD; Montgomery FO;
**Watling DP**(1998) Microscopic modelling of traffic management measures for guided bus operation, In: Zhang G (Ed)*Theory and Applications of Traffic and Transport Systems Engineering*, ASCE Press New York, pp.160-170. **Watling DP**(1998) Moment approximation to a markov model of binary route choice, In: Griffiths JD (Ed)*Mathematics in Transport Planning and Control*, Pergamon, pp.99-108.