Institute for Transport Studies (ITS)

Staff photo

Professor Peter Mackie

Emeritus Professor



  • BA Economics University of Nottingham First Class

Employment History

  • Emeritus Professor 2014 -
  • Research Professor, part-time 2008-2013
  • Dean of Faculty of Environment, University of Leeds 2002-8
  • Lecturer, Senior Lecturer, Professor of Transport Studies, University of Leeds
  • UK Ministry of Transport, London, 1968-70

Capability statement

  • Peter is a leading UK academic figure in transport policy and economics and has specialised in issues relating to transport appraisal and to regulation and deregulation. He has a record of leadership in research grants and contracts as well as teaching in microeconomics and transport economics for undergraduates, graduate students and post-experience professionals, has supervised twenty successful graduate students to PhD level and has been Director of ITS and Dean of Faculty.
  • On regulatory policy, Peter worked on the regulation of road haulage at both national and EU level at the time trucking was a regulated industry. With colleagues Gwilliam, Nash and Preston he conducted studies and wrote papers on the deregulation of the local bus industry both in prospect (Transport Reviews 1985) and in retrospect (Transport Reviews 1995). Recently he contributed to a large ITS study for DfT on the economics of concessionary travel in the UK and the reimbursement to operators for social obligations.
  • Within the field of appraisal of transport projects, Peter has helped to develop the framework of cost-benefit analysis in transport, has addressed particular issues such as the valuation of travel time savings and has engaged in research on the economic impacts of infrastructure projects, the logistics benefits of road investments and the so-called wider economy impacts of transport projects. He has led ITS's work on disseminating transport appraisal methods to the user community through the World Bank Toolkit, several projects for the European Union, work for the UN Economic Commission for Europe and for the national Governments of the UK and Ireland. He has worked for the OECD and the International Transport Forum and has participated in many ITF Round Tables including in Paris, Boston and Queretaro, Mexico.
  • Peter has contributed particularly to the development of transport appraisal in the UK through his work for the UK Government. This includes membership of the SACTRA committee which produced three influential reports on Environmental Appraisal, the Roads Generate Traffic issue and Transport and the Economy. This last report from 1999 stimulated the upswing of technical interest in how to assess the wider economy impacts of infrastructure investment. He was also a member of the academic review panel of the Eddington review into the transport sector and chaired the peer review panel of the Department for Transport's review of the New Approach to Appraisal, the NATA Refresh. He was a member of the Academic Challenge Panel set up to assist the appraisal of the High Speed 2 rail project currently being planned between London, the Midlands and the North of England. In April 2013 he was appointed to the panel of experts assisting the Airports Commission. He has been the manager of a call-off contract between ITS and the DfT under which around fifty pieces of work have been commissioned over fifteen years.

Selected Recent Projects

Buses and Economic Growth ( Greener Journeys 2012) This study examined the contribution of bus transport to economic activity through its contribution to commuting, travel to education and shopping and leisure. An internet based survey generated data on the role of the bus in facilitating the working of local labour markets, matching people to jobs and promoting skills development.

Concessionary Travel (Department for Transport 2008-10)A major study of the demand for bus travel by elderly and disabled passengers, of the supply response by operators and of the basis for reimbursement to operators for social concessions to support the policy requirement that the payments regime should be financially neutral to operators.

Review of Methodologies to Assess Transport's Impacts on the size of the Economy (Northern Way, 2010)
This reviewed the contribution of recent empirical work on estimating GVA impacts of transport schemes and how this relates to traditional cost benefit analysis methods. The review focused on the interface between CBA and GVA measures and recent empirical evidence on transport's contribution to productivity.

National Secondary Road network needs study (National Road Administration, Ireland 2009-2011)
This very large study reviewed the whole 2,600km of national secondary roads with the objective of identifying a future national secondary road network with an outline programme for its delivery. ITS was responsible for the development of the appraisal methodology.

HEATCO: Developing Harmonised European Approaches for Transport Costing and Project Assessment (European Commission, Sixth Framework Research Project, 2004-6)
HEATCO's primary objective is the development of harmonised guidelines for project assessment and transport costing on EU level. The basis of the guidelines was a state-of-the art review of economic appraisal across Europe. Peter was the director of ITS's contribution to this project which included a meta-analysis across European studies of values of travel time.

Toolkit for the Economic Evaluation of World Bank Transport Projects (World Bank,2002-3)
Peter directed this study for ITS in conjunction with IT Transport Ltd, a consultant specialising in developing countries work. The toolkit was developed for the World Bank for the evaluation of their projects. The toolkit comprises of a framework document and 20 specialised notes detailing the specific treatment of attributes within the appraisal some of which are developing world specific. These specialist notes include the treatment of public private partnerships, wider economic impacts (including social benefits such as improved health care and education), treatment of Non-Motorised Transport, cost effectiveness analysis as an alternative to cost benefit analysis and issues associated with poverty, forced resettlement and environmental impacts.

Evaluation of the Multi-Modal Studies (Department for Transport 2002-3)
The Government commissioned thirty or so multi-modal studies of particular problem corridors and areas on the inter-urban network and in cities. Following their completion, the Department commissioned ITS with AEAT and John Bates to carry out a review and draw lessons for the future.

Revising the Values of Work and Non-Working Time Used for Transport Modelling and Appraisal (Department for Transport 2000-2)
The Department had commissioned a study to update the national values of travel time savings in 1994-6.This study broke new ground but left the Department with a number of challenging issues relating to practical implementation. Peter led the ITS study (with an external consultant John Bates) which undertook further analysis and made recommendations for implementation which formed the basis of the Department's revised appraisal guidance.

IASON: Integrated Appraisal of Spatial, Economic and Network Effects of Transport Investment and Policies (EU Fifth Framework Research Project 2001-2)
This study brought together a number of leading European research groups using various research methodologies and perspectives including Computable General Equilibrium models to try to create a more holistic approach to transport appraisal. Partners included TNO (Tavasszy), Groningen (Oosterhaven), Dortmund (Wegener) and Kiel (Brocker) with all of whom we have maintained links.

Peter makes occasional contributions, for example to the Transport Investment Appraisal short course which ITS runs from time to time.


  • Mackie P; Worsley T; Eliasson J (2014) Transport appraisal revisited, Research in Transportation Economics, 47, pp.3-18. doi: 10.1016/j.retrec.2014.09.013
  • Wardman M; Batley R; Laird J; Mackie P; Bates J (2014) How should business travel time savings be valued?, Economics of Transportation, . doi: 10.1016/j.ecotra.2015.08.003
  • Laird J; Nash C; Mackie P (2014) Transformational transport infrastructure: Cost-benefit analysis challenges, Town Planning Review, 85, pp.709-730. doi: 10.3828/tpr.2014.43
  • Laird JJ; Mackie PJ (2014) Wider economic benefits of transport schemes in remote rural areas, Research in Transportation Economics, 47, pp.92-102. doi: 10.1016/j.retrec.2014.09.022
  • Proost S; Dunkerley F; Borger BD; Gühneman A; Koskenoja P; Mackie P; Loo SVD (2011) When are subsidies to trans-European network projects justified?, Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 45, pp.161-170. doi: 10.1016/j.tra.2010.12.001
  • Docherty I; Mackie P (2010) Planning for transport in the wake of Stern and Eddington, Regional Studies, 44, pp.1085-1096. doi: 10.1080/00343400902736550
  • Mackie P (2008) Who knows where the time goes? A response to David Metz, Transport Reviews, 28, pp.692-694. doi: 10.1080/01441640802535870
  • Laird JJ; Nellthorp J; Mackie PJ (2005) Network effects and total economic impact in transport appraisal, Transport Policy, 12, pp.537-544. doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.07.003
  • Mackie P (2005) The London congestion charge: A tentative economic appraisal. A comment on the paper by Prud'homme and Bocajero, Transport Policy, 12, pp.288-290. doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2005.04.001
  • May AD; Bristow AL; Mackie PJ; Nash CA; Tight MR (2002) The UK's ten year transport plan: lessons for strategic planning, Traffic Engineering & Control, 43, pp.352-356.
  • May T; Bristow A; Mackie P; Nash C; Tight M (2002) The UK's ten year transport plan: Lessons for strategic planning, Traffic Engineering and Control, 43, pp.295-299.
  • Mackie P (2002) A comment on 'The limitations of transport policy', TRANSPORT REV, 22, pp.373-375.
  • Mackie PJ; Jara-Díaz S; Fowkes AS (2001) The value of travel time savings in evaluation, Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, 37, pp.91-106. doi: 10.1016/S1366-5545(00)00013-2
  • Grant-Muller SM; MacKie P; Nellthorp J; Pearman A (2001) Economic appraisal of european transport projects: The state-of-the-art revisited, Transport Reviews, 21, pp.237-261. doi: 10.1080/01441640119423
  • Nellthorp J; Mackie PJ (2000) The UK Roads Review - a hedonic model of decision making, Transport Policy, 7, pp.127-138. doi: 10.1016/S0967-070X(00)00002-0
  • Mackie PJ (1999) A new deal for transport: implications for Yorkshire and Humberside, The Regional Review, 8(3), pp.3-5.
  • Mackie PJ; Preston JM (1998) Twenty-one sources of error and bias in transport project appraisal, Transport Policy, 5, pp.1-7.
  • Mackie PJ (1998) Developments in transport policy. The UK transport policy White Paper, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 32, pp.399-403.
  • Mackie PJ; Toner JP; Coombe D (1996) A critical comment on the COBACHECK method of estimating the effects of induced traffic on the economic benefits of road schemes, Traffic Engineering & Control, 37, pp.500-502.
  • Mackie PJ (1996) Induced traffic and economic appraisal, Transportation, 23, pp.103-119.
  • Mackie PJ; Preston JM; Nash CA (1995) Bus Deregulation ten years on, Transport Reviews, 15, pp.229-251.
  • Mackie PJ; Bonsall PW (1989) Traveller Response to Road Improvements: Implications for User Benefits, Traffic Engineering & Control, pp.411-417.
  • Gwilliam K; Nash CA; Mackie PJ (1985) Deregulating the Bus Industry - A Rejoinder, Transport Reviews, 5, pp.215-222.
  • Fowkes AS; Mackie PJ; Nash CA; Whiteing AE (1985) Road Track Cost Allocation in Great Britain, Transportation Research. Part B: Methodological, 19B, pp.161-165. doi: 10.1016/0191-2615(85)90022-0
  • Gwilliam K; Nash CA; Mackie PJ (1985) Deregulating the Bus Industry: The Case Against, Transport Reviews, 5, pp.105-132.
  • Mackie PJ; Nash CA (1982) Efficiency and Performance Indicators: The Case of the Bus Industry, Public Money, 15, pp.41-44.


  • Toner JP; Mackie PJ (2010) Concessionary Travel - the Research Papers, Institute for Transport Studies University of Leeds.
  • Pearman AD; Mackie PJ; Nellthorp J (2003) Transport Projects, Programmes and Policies: Evaluation Needs and Capabilities, Ashgate, pp.271.
  • Mackie PJ; Watson SM; Nellthorp J; Pearman AD (2003) Cost-benefit analysis of transport projects, UN Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva.
  • Sansom T; Nash CA; Mackie PJ; Shires JD; Watkiss P (2001) Surface transport costs and charges Great Britain, DETR, pp.126p.
  • Mackie PJ; Preston JM (1996) The local bus market: a case study of regulatory change, Avebury.

Book Chapters

  • Mackie P; Graham D; Laird J (2011) The direct and wider impacts of transport projects: a review, In: de Palma A; Lindsey R; Quinet E; Vickerman R (Ed) A Handbook of Transport Economics, Edward Elgar, pp.501-526.
  • Mackie PJ (2011) Cost-Benefit Analysis in Transport ; A UK Perspective, Improving the Practice of Transport Project Appraisal, ITF Round Table, 149, OECD, pp.79-99.
  • Mackie PJ; Smith NJ (2007) Road transport infrastructure: Business models, trends and prospects, Infrastructure to 2030, 2, pp.463-495. doi: 10.1787/9789264031326-9-en
  • Mackie PJ; Smith NJ (2007) Road Transport Infrastructure- Business Models, Trends and Prospects, In: OECD (Ed) Infrastructure to 2030: Mapping Policy for Electricity, Water and Transport , 2, Paris, pp.463-495.
  • Mackie PJ; Smith N (2005) Financing Roads in Great Britain, In: Ragazzi G; Rothengatter W (Ed) Procurement and Financing of Motorways in Europe. Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, pp.223-237.
  • Preston JM; Mackie PJ (2003) Bus regulation - from workhorse to thoroughbred, In: Hine J; Preston J (Ed) Integrated futures and transport choices, Ashgate, pp.225-240.
  • Mackie PJ; Nellthorp J (2003) Transport Appraisal in a Policy Context, In: Pearman AD; Mackie P; Nellthorp J (Ed) Transport Projects, Programmes and Policies - Evaluation Needs and Capabilities, Ashgate, pp.3-16.
  • Mackie PJ (2002) Motoring towards 2050, In: Motoring RACFF; London (Ed) Motoring towards 2050, Motoring towards 2050, pp.pp.176.
  • Mackie PJ; Nellthorp J (2001) Cost-benefit analysis in transport, In: Button KJ; Hensher DA (Ed) Handbook of transport systems and traffic control, Oxford : Pergamon, pp.143-174.
  • Mackie PJ (2001) Principles of public policy for bus services, In: Grayling T (Ed) Any More Fares? - Delivering Better Bus Services, IPPR, London, pp.19-39.
  • Mackie PJ (1999) Decision making. What we need for the inputs, Transport's New Deal: The Research We Need to Achieve it, DETR, pp.50-54.
  • Bonsall PW; Mackie PJ (1990) Road Improvements, Traveller Response and User Benefits, In: 1989 Y (Ed) Transport Policy, Management and Technology, 4, Transport Policy, Management and Technology, pp.153-168.

Internet Publications


Conference Papers

  • Hollander Y; Liu R; Mackie PJ (2007) Application of a departure time choice model in a cost-benefit analysis., Association for European Transport, European Transport Conference 2007 .
  • Mackie PJ; Hollander Y; Liu R (2007) Estimating Traveller Costs with a Departure Time Choice Loop, ETC 2007 .
  • Mackie P; Smith N (2005) Financing Roads in Great Britain, Research in Transportation Economics 15, pp.215-229. doi: 10.1016/S0739-8859(05)15017-3
  • Whelan GA; Toner JP; Mackie PJ; Preston JM (2001) Modelling Quality Bus Partnerships, 7th International Conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport .

Conference Presentations

  • Mackie P; Cochrane R (2009) Planning, Appraisal and Funding for Strategic Transport Projects, Transport for a Global Economy .
  • Mackie PJ; Smith NJ (2006) Transport Infrastructure Funding Systems - A Review of European Experience, 5th Conference on Applied Infrastructure Research (INFRADAY) .
  • Guehnemann A; Whiteing AE; Mackie PJ; Smith N (2006) Transport Infrastructure Funding Systems - A Review of European Experience., 5th Conference on Applied Infrastructure Research (INFRADAY), Berlin, 6-7 October 2006. .
  • Laird JJ; Nellthorp J; Mackie PJ (2004) Network effects and total economic impact in an enlarged Trans-European Transport network, ETC, 2004 .
  • Mackie PJ (2002) The political economy of road user charging, Conference at University of Valencia, Sept 2002. .
  • Bristow AL; Shires JD; Mackie PJ (2001) Quality bus partnerships: new evidence on performance, World Conference on Transport Research, Seoul, Korea .
  • Mackie PJ; Fowkes AS; Wardman MR; Whelan GA; Bates JJ (2001) Three Controversies in the Valuation of Travel Time Savings, European Transport Conference, Cambridge, 2001 .
  • Whelan GA; Toner JP; Mackie PJ; Preston JM (2001) Modelling Quality Bus Partnerships, 9th World Conference on Transport Research, Seoul, Korea. pp.pp.4115.
  • Tight MR; Delle Site P; Hammond A; Nellthorp J; Mackie PJ (2001) Separating the intensity of transport from economic growth, 9th World Conference on Transport Research .
  • van Vuren T; Gordon A; Mackie PJ; Harris R; Williams IN (2001) From NRTF to national transport model - a new national transport forecasting tool, European Transport Conference, Cambridge, 2001 .
  • Mackie PJ (2000) Economic Appraisal in Transport, Public Policy for the 21st Century pp.175-192.
  • Nellthorp J; Mackie PJ (1999) The UK roads review - a model of decision making, Paper presented at European Transport Conference, Cambridge University .
  • Mackie PJ (1999) Quality bus partnerships - implications for market performance, Paper presented at Sixth International conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport, Cape Town, South Africa .
  • Mackie PJ (1999) Which role for Government - regulation or competition?, Fourteenth International Symposium on Theory and Practice in Transport Economics pp.138-159.
  • Mackie PJ (1998) Transport policy and finance, Paper presented at Conference on the Third Way, Hull .
  • Mackie PJ (1998) Behind the rhetoric - the impact of Goverment policy on transport funding, Paper presented at Conference on Transport Strategies for the New Millennium, London .
  • Mackie PJ (1998) Transport infrastructure, Economic appraisal and economic activity, Paper presented at Transport Conference, Borlange, Sweden .
  • Bristow AL; Mackie PJ; Nellthorp J; Jansen G (1998) Costs, prices and values in the appraisal of transport projects - European principles and practice, Paper presented at the 8th World Conference on Transport Research, Antwerp, Belgium .
  • Mackie PJ (1998) Balancing the competing claims, Paper presented at the IHT Conference, York .
  • Williams IN; Mackie PJ; Tsamboulas D; Larkinson J (1998) Assessing the socio-economic impacts of transport initiatives: the EUNET project, Paper presented at 8th World Conference on Transport Research, Antwerp, Belgium .
  • Mackie PJ (1998) Transport infrastructure, Economic appraisal and economic activity, Paper presented at TSU Seminar, Hertford College, Oxford University Research Report 867, .
  • Nellthorp J; Bristow AL; Mackie PJ (1997) Valuing the costs and benefits in European transport appraisal, Proceedings of Seminar E: Transportation planning methods. European Transport Forum 1, pp.187-199.
  • Wardman MR; Mackie PJ (1997) A Review of the Value of Time: Evidence from British Experience, PTRC European Transport Conference, Brunel .
  • Mackie PJ (1996) Value of time - outstanding issues for evaluation, Paper presented at PTRC Value of Time Conference, Wokingham .
  • Bristow AL; Mackie PJ; Nash CA (1992) Evaluation Criteria in the Allocation of Subsidies to Bus Operations , Seminar C, 20th PTRC Summer Annual Meeting, University of Manchester .
  • Bonsall PW; Mackie PJ (1989) Identification of User Response to New Road Capacity, Proceedings of 17th PTRC Summer Conference pp.59-70.

Other Publications

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