Institute for Transport Studies (ITS)

Staff photo

Professor Andrew Smith

Professor

Phone: +44 (0)113 34 36654
Room: 2.13
Email: A.S.J.Smith@its.leeds.ac.uk_
Research Group: Economics and Appraisal

Featured, recent publications

  • Odolinski, K. and Smith, A.S.J. (2016), Assessing the cost impact of competitive tendering in rail infrastructure maintenance services: evidence from the Swedish Reforms (1999 to 2011), Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, Volume 50, Number 1, January 2016, pp. 93-112.

  • Mizutani, F, Smith, A.S.J., Nash, C.A. and Uranishi, S (2015), Comparing the Costs of Vertical Separation, Integration, and Intermediate Organisational Structures in European and East Asian Railways, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, Volume 49, Number 3, July 2015, pp. 496-515.

  • Smith A.S.J, Buckell J., Wheat P.E., and Longo R. (2016), Hierarchical performance and unobservable heterogeneity in health: A dual-level efficiency approach applied to NHS pathology in England, in Greene, W.H., Sickles. R., Khalaf, L., Veall, M., and Voia, M.C.. eds., Productivity and Efficiency Analysis, Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics, Chapter 8, pp. 119-143.

  • Smith, A.S.J. and Nash, C.A. (2014), Rail Efficiency: Cost Research and its Implications for Policy, International Transport Forum Discussion Paper, 2014: 22, OECD.

PhD topics

Andrew welcomes PhD applications from UK, EU (non-UK) and international students in the above or related areas. There are a wide range of PhD scholarships available for excellent candidates.  See the Teaching section of this page for further details.

Overview

Andrew is a Senior Lecturer in Transport Regulation and Economics and Research Group Leader for the Economics and Discrete Choice Research Group at the Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds.

Andrew's key research areas are:

  • Econometric cost modelling, efficiency analysis and benchmarking (primarily stochastic frontier methods)
  • Regulatory economics, competition, industry structure, innovation and economic incentives
  • Infrastructure access pricing and marginal cost research
  • Transport economics

Andrew's research covers transport (rail and bus), other regulated network industries (e.g. water) and health - see the Research section of this page for a list of projects. He has forged close links with economic regulators, for example through developing the British Office of Rail Regulation's approach to top down econometric efficiency  benchmarking in the 2008 and 2013 Periodic reviews. He is also currently academic advisor on econometric efficiency modelling issues for the water regulator, OFWAT. Andrew's research seeks to apply state-of-the-art efficiency analysis methods to the sphere of economic regulation, as well as develop new methodological approaches. Andrew works widely with international researchers on these and related cost modelling challenges, and has a visiting research position at the Centre for Transport Studies in Stockholm. He also makes regular contributions to OECD/ITF roundtable discussions in these areas, for example on economic regulation.

Andrew currently has five PhD students researching in the areas of efficiency analysis in rail, health and airlines, and in rail reforms more generally. Andrew welcomes PhD applications from UK, EU (non-UK) and international students in the above or related areas. There are a wide range of PhD scholarships available, subject to meeting requirements (these are competitive). See the Teaching section of this page for further details.

Employment History

  • Visiting Researcher, Centre for Transport Studies, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and Swedish National Road and      Transport Research Institute (VTI), Sweden (2009 to date)
  • Joint post: Senior Lecturer in Transport  Regulation & Economics, Institute for Transport Studies and Leeds University Business School, University of Leeds (2011 to date)
  • Lecturer in Transport Economics, University of Leeds (2004-2011)
  • PhD Student, Judge Institute of Management, University of Cambridge – (2001-2004)
  • Manager, Financial Strategy, BBC Corporate Finance (1997-2001)
  • Consultant, Strategy Division of Deloitte Consulting (1996-1997)
  • Consultant, Coopers & Lybrand (1992-1996)

Education

  • PhD, Economics of Rail Regulation, University of Cambridge, 2004
  • MSc Economics, University of Warwick, 1992
  • BSc Economics (Ist Class), University of Hull, 1991

 

 

Featured, recent publications

  • Odolinski, K. and Smith, A.S.J. (2016), Assessing the cost impact of competitive tendering in rail infrastructure maintenance services: evidence from the Swedish Reforms (1999 to 2011), Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, Volume 50, Number 1, January 2016, pp. 93-112.

  • Mizutani, F, Smith, A.S.J., Nash, C.A. and Uranishi, S (2015), Comparing the Costs of Vertical Separation, Integration, and Intermediate Organisational Structures in European and East Asian Railways, Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, Volume 49, Number 3, July 2015, pp. 496-515.

  • Smith A.S.J, Buckell J., Wheat P.E., and Longo R. (2016), Hierarchical performance and unobservable heterogeneity in health: A dual-level efficiency approach applied to NHS pathology in England, in Greene, W.H., Sickles. R., Khalaf, L., Veall, M., and Voia, M.C.. eds., Productivity and Efficiency Analysis, Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics, Chapter 8, pp. 119-143.

  • Smith, A.S.J. and Nash, C.A. (2014), Rail Efficiency: Cost Research and its Implications for Policy, International Transport Forum Discussion Paper, 2014: 22, OECD.

PhD topics

Andrew welcomes PhD applications from UK, EU (non-UK) and international students in the above or related areas. There are a wide range of PhD scholarships available for excellent candidates. See the Teaching section of this page for further details.

Overview of research

Andrew is a Senior Lecturer in Transport Regulation and Economics and Research Group Leader for the Economics and Discrete Choice Research Group at the Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds. He is a leading academic in the field of rail cost and efficiency modelling, infrastructure access pricing and marginal cost research, rail regulation and the impact of rail reforms on economic efficiency. He has published important work in these areas and has led or is leading a wide range of rail cost modelling projects, funded by, for example, the European Commission, EPSRC, the British Office of Rail Regulation, and the UK Department for Transport. Andrew’s research has sought to exploit synergies with rail engineering research, for example through his recent work to combine rail engineering and economics / econometric modelling to better understand the relative cost of different track damage mechanisms (EU SUSTRAIL project). Andrew’s research also extends to efficiency and performance analysis in other sectors: Andrew is academic advisor on econometric benchmarking issues for OFWAT; and is currently undertaking an efficiency study on Community Hospitals funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). He also has a visiting research position at the Centre for Transport Studies in Stockholm. Andrew currently has five PhD students researching in the areas of efficiency analysis in rail, health and airlines, and in rail reforms more generally (see the Teaching section on this page).

Andrew currently has five PhD students in the following areas:

  • On optimising railway operations from an economic perspective - i-Case studentship, part funded by Network Rail
  • The location and magnitude of inefficiency in the National Health Service – ESRC Innovations and Quantitative Methods Studentship
  • The impacts of regulatory structures on the efficiency of European railway systems – ESRC funded
  • TFP and efficiency analysis of US Airlines – ESRC funded
  • Assessing the impact of rail contracting and rail infrastructure efficiency in Sweden – joint with VTI in Sweden

A list of relevant research projects is set out below:

  • Review of Track Access charges (2014-2015): (subcontractor to STRATEC for the Belgian Ministry of Transport). Role: Co-Investigator.
  • Secondment, Special Economic Advisor to Office of Rail Regulation on econometric cost modelling and efficiency analysis (2011 to 2014). Role: PI.
  • International rail infrastructure econometric cost modelling and efficiency analysis of Network Rail, Office of Rail Regulation (2005 to 2012). Role: PI.
  • Academic advisor to OFWAT on econometric efficiency analysis, OFWAT (2013 to ongoing). Role: PI
  • Econometric cost and efficiency analysis for regulatory review process, OFWAT (2012-2013). Role: PI.
  • Econometric cost modelling and benchmarking of Community Hospitals (2014-ongoing), National Institute for Health Research (NIHR). Role: Co-I.
  • Marginal cost estimation for rail infrastructure: EU funded, CATRIN (2007-2009). Role: PI. 
  • Estimating the relative cost of damage mechanisms on rail infrastructure: combining economic and engineering approaches, EU funded, SUSTRAIL (2012 to 2014). Role: Task leader.
  • Visiting Researcher, Centre for Transport Studies, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) (2009 to ongoing). Role: PI.
  • Economic Incentives for Innovation (Feasibility Study under the “Half Cost Train” Initiative), Rail Safety and Standards Board (RSSB); 2013-2014. Role: Co-I.
  • International Study on Railway Unbundling (2012). Community of European Railway and Infrastructure Companies (CER). Role: PI.
  • Econometric cost modelling and rail system technology cost model development, EPSRC funded project as part of Rail Research UK (2004 to 2010). Role: Project Manager.
  • National Modelling Framework TOC Model Development: The application of Econometric methods, funded by Department for Transport (2009-2010). Role: PI.
  • Concessionary fares – reimbursement of bus operators – econometric cost modelling, Department for Transport (2008-2009).

 

Andrew teaches at both undergraduate and post-graduate level (advanced microeconomics, public enterprise and regulation, and, at masters level, economics of transport regulation).

He also teaches each year on the SESAMI (Strategic Entrepreneurship and Sustainability Alliance Management Initiatives) programme at the University of Kobe Japan: Economics of Public Sector and Network Industries.

Andrew currently has five PhD students in the following areas:

  • On optimising railway operations from an economic perspective - i-Case studentship, part funded by Network Rail
  • The location and magnitude of inefficiency in the National Health Service – ESRC Innovations and Quantitative Methods Studentship
  • The impacts of regulatory structures on the efficiency of European railway systems – ESRC funded
  • TFP and efficiency analysis of US Airlines – ESRC funded
  • Assessing the impact of rail contracting and rail infrastructure efficiency in Sweden – joint with VTI in Sweden

Andrew welcomes PhD applications from UK, EU (non-UK) and international students in the above or related areas. Please see the ITS PhD topic page. There are a wide range of PhD funding / scholarship opportunities for excellent candidates. Andrew's research focuses on the application and development of methodologies aimed at addressing important policy challenges. The real world impact of Andrew’s research is demonstrated by his close working relationships with policy makers, for example his secondment to the British Rail regulator (ORR), his academic advisor position at water regulator, OFWAT, and his regular contributions to OECD/ITF roundtable discussions, for example on economic regulation. Andrew is able to utilise these links to aid PhD students in their research, for example through obtaining good access to data. For example, as noted above one of Andrew’s students is directly supported by Network Rail; another was seconded during his studies to NHS England.

Papers

Book Chapters

Reports

Conference Papers

Conference Presentations

  • Rasmussen T; Wheat P; Smith A (2015) Do open access train operators exhibit inherent cost benefits compared to their franchised counterparts?, International Transportation Economics Association Annual Conference and Summer School (Kuhmo Nectar) .
  • Scarsi G; Smith ASJ; Wheat PE (2011) Sub-company efficiency analysis of railway infrastructure: panel data SFA, 12th Tenth European Workshop on Efficiency and Productivity Analysis .
  • Smith ASJ; Wheat PE (2011) How does the choice of the scaling function in BC92-type models affect inefficiency estimates? Observations and generalisations, 12th European Workshop on Efficiency and Productivity Analysis .
  • Wheat PE; Smith ASJ; Greene W (2011) How confident can we be about confidence intervals for firm specific inefficiency scores from parametric Stochastic Frontier Models?, 12th European Workshop on Efficiency and Productivity Analysis .
  • Smith ASJ; Nash CA; Wheat PE (2011) The impact of rail franchising on labour productivity and input prices - evidence from Britain, International Conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport (Thredbo) .
  • Smith ASJ; Nash CA; Nilsson JE (2011) Measuring the Success of Rail Reforms, 2nd European Rail Transport Regulation Forum Performance and Governance in Railway Markets .
  • Andersson M; Wikberg A; Smith ASJ; Wheat PE (2010) The Marginal Cost of Railway Renewals: A Sample Selection Modelling Approach, Kuhmo Nectar .
  • Andersson M; Wikberg A; Smith ASJ; Wheat PE (2010) The Marginal Cost of Railway Renewals: A Sample Selection Modelling Approach, World Conference .
  • Smith ASJ; Nash CA; Sanders S; Hood I (2010) How to get Value for Money through Private Sector Participation in Rail Passenger Service Delivery - International Evidence, European Transport Conference .
  • Smith ASJ; Wheat PE (2010) Cost savings from exploiting economies of density through mergers in network industries: The case of recent refranchising in passenger rail services in Great Britain, Seventh Annual Rail Research UK Workshop .
  • Smith ASJ (2010) Measuring the market and its regulation: what do we need to know?, 1st Florence Workshop on Rail Transport Regulation .
  • Wheat P; Smith A (2009) An International Efficiency Comparison of Rail Infrastructure Managers: An Ananysis Utilising Sub-Company data and a Dual Level Inefficiency Model, 11th European Workshop on Efficiency and Productivity Analysis .
  • Smith A; Wheat P; Smith G (2009) The Role of International Benchmarking in Developing Rail Infrastructure Efficiency Estimates, Centre for Competition and Regulatory Policy Workshop .
  • Wheat PE; Smith ASJ (2009) An International Efficiency Comparison of European Rail Infrastructure Managers: An Analysis Utilising Sub-Company Data based on a Dual Level Efficiency Model’, XI European Workshop on Efficiency and Productivity Analysis (EWEPA .
  • Merkert R; Smith ASJ; Nash CA (2009) The effects of institutional, environmental and transactional factors on European train operating company efficiency - A Tobit regression approach based on DEA efficiency scores, European Transport Conferencce .
  • Smith ASJ; Wheat PE (2009) The Effect of Franchising on Cost Efficiency: Evidence from the Passenger Rail Sector in Britain, Proceeding of International Conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport (Thredbo) .
  • Smith ASJ; Wheat PE (2009) The Application of Time Varying Efficiency Models to the Study of Passenger Rail Franchising in Britain (1997-2006), Paper presented to the XI European Workshop on Efficiency and Productivity Analysis (EWEPA) .
  • Smith ASJ; Wheat PE (2008) The Power of Sub-Company Data for Estimating Efficiency Frontiers, Fifth North American Productivity Workshop (NAPW) .
  • Merkert R; Nash CA; Smith ASJ (2008) Looking beyond separation - a comparative analysis of British, German and Swedish railways from a new institutional perspective, European Transport Conference .
  • Wheat PE; Smith ASJ (2007) A Quantitative Study of Train Operating Companies Cost and Efficiency Trends 1996 to 2006: Lessons for Future Franchising Policy, Tenth European Workshop on Efficiency and Productivity Analysis, Lille, France. 2007 .
  • Smith ASJ; Wheat PE (2007) A Quantitative Study of Train Operating Companies Cost and Efficiency Trends 1996 to 2006: Lessons for Future Franchising Policy, European Transport Conference 2007, Netherlands. .
  • Smith ASJ (2007) UK experiences of rail restructuring and privatisation, Seminar on European Rail Policy: A New Era? .
  • Wheat PE; Smith ASJ (2006) Assessing the marginal infrastructure wear and tear costs for Great Britain’s railway network, European Transport Conference September 2006, Strasbourg. .
  • Smith ASJ (2005) Capital Efficiency, Its Measurement and Its Role in Regulatory Reviews of Utility Industries: The Case of Rail, Regulation Initiative Conference, London Business School .
  • Smith ASJ (2004) UK Regulatory Price Review: The Role of Efficiency Estimates: The Case of Rail, Regulation Initiative Conference .
  • Smith ASJ (2003) Assessing the Efficient Cost of Sustaining Britain's Rail Network : Perspectives based on Zonal Comparisons, First Conference on "Railroad Industry Structure, Competition and Investment". November 7-8, 2003, Toulouse, France .

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